North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC


Contributions to a Check List of the Lepidoptera of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

(Macrolepidoptera Families: Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae; also including: Hepialidae, Cossidae, Attevidae, Yponomeutidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae, and Thyrididae)


By Hugo L. Kons Jr.


Posted on the Web 8 September 2007


Most Recent Update: Feb. 2014


Note:  While this check list does not contain detailed information for the included species, an upcoming volume of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity will present specific collection localities for the species on this list, phenology data reported for five day intervals, habitat data and analysis, hypotheses of habitat dependency for many of the included species, and other information and analyses.  To receive an e-mail notification when this volume becomes available, contact the author at


Abstract:  I present a check list of 919 Lepidoptera species recorded from Outagamie County, Wisconsin, including 905 species of Macrolepidoptera.  Outagamie County contains three localities where I have conducted extensive field work over multiple seasons.  These localities, with the number of Macrolepidoptera species recorded, include Mosquito Hill Nature Center (783), Fallen Timbers Environmental Center (FT) (642), and an urban yard on Summer Street in the city of Appleton (521).


Introduction:  Outagamie County, Wisconsin, is located near the designated boundary between the Transition Life Zone and the Canadian Life Zone (Scott 1986).  While some sources have depicted this boundary going through Outagamie County, the habitats present at my survey sites, with the exception of a bog near Shioctin (surveyed once during the day), are more characteristic of the Transition Life Zone than the Canadian Life Zone.  The hill forest at Mosquito Hill Nature Center has characteristics of both, with a northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest on the north slope of the hill and a southern hickory hardwood forest on the south slope.  Habitats occurring within Outagamie County include eastern hardwood forest, mixed pine/hardwood forest, inland and floodplain hydric hardwood forest, sedge meadow and other wetlands, a small area with some native prairie/barrens elements on limestone cliffs and hillside, old field, prairie planting, and urban area.  White cedar swamp and bog habitats also occur but received sparse coverage and only with diurnal surveys.  Some limited wet prairie habitat occurs along the Outagamie County Recreational Trail south of Medina, but I have conducted only limited diurnal survey in this habitat.

            I conducted surveys in Outagamie County primarily from 1989-1996, with a small number of records from earlier.  Surveys were conducted at Mosquito Hill and Fallen Timbers from 1989-1991 with bait traps and day surveys.  From 1992-1995 (and once each in 1996) I surveyed these sites at night with UV lights and bait trails, in addition to diurnal surveys.  Specimens were collected in the Appleton yard at lights and in bait traps from 1989-early August of 1996, and a few additional records from this site were obtained prior to this time, as far back as 1981.  The author lived here year round up until the fall of 1992, and during the summers of 1993, 1994 (part), 1995, and 1996 (part).  At times when I was present at this locality from 1989-1996 I put out lights and bait traps on the vast majority of nights warm enough for moth activity.

            I first produced check lists of Outagamie County Rhopalocera and nocturnal Macrolepidoptera in the early 1990s, but only as unpublished reports.  These check lists have been continuously updated over the years and the current check list probably approaches a thorough inventory of the species I have documented in the included families, although I still have backlog material and a small number of unidentified species.  In addition, some of the detailed survey data for Outagamie County appears in a variety of unpublished reports which have been distributed to land managers, the WI Department of Natural Resources, and various Lepidopterists.  This internet site is my first paper on Outagamie County Lepidoptera that is more widely available, but more detailed papers are planned for future volumes of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity.


Survey Localities:  The Outagamie County check list is primarily comprised of the checklists for Mosquito Hill Nature Center, Fallen Timbers Environmental Center, and the Appleton yard.  The list also includes a few records exclusively from other less intensively studied localities, including Plaman County Park, Bubolz Nature Center, and a bog near Shioctin. 


Appleton Yard (AP) [N 44°16.300 W 88°24.990]:  This locality is a backyard located in an urban area near the downtown.  While a variety of native tree species are present in the immediate vicinity, no tracts of forest or habitat left to grow wild are present in the immediate vicinity.  I have conducted extensive diurnal and nocturnal field work at this locality.


Bubolz Nature Center [N 44°18.657 W 88°26.970]:  This site includes mesic hardwood forest, hydric hardwood forest, white cedar swamp, fields, and shrubby wetlands.  I have conducted a number of diurnal surveys, and obtained some bait trap samples and one light trap sample.


Fallen Timbers Environmental Center (FT) [N 44°28.7 W 88°24.6]:  This site contains an extensive inland wetland hardwood forest with many wetland and sedge meadow openings.  Also present are sizable meadows and fields as well as a man-made pond.  I have conducted extensive diurnal and nocturnal field work at this locality.


Mosquito Hill Nature Center  [N 44°22.8 W 88°42.3]:  This locality contains a variety of different habitat types including sedge meadow, floodplain hardwood forest (on the Wolf River floodplain), prairie planting, fields, a small wet meadow spring seep area, and a diverse hill containing varied forest types on the different slopes as well as limestone cliffs/hillside with small areas with some barrens/prairie character.  Some prairie/barrens vegetation present in the latter area includes lead plant (Amorpha canascens), Downy Phlox (Phlox pilosa), Pucoon (Lithospermum sp.), and Rock Cress (Arabyia sp.).  The south side of the hill contains eastern deciduous forest with Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata), Bitternut Hickory, Oaks (Quercus sp.), Poplars (Populus sp.), Elms (Ulmus sp.), and other hardwoods.  However, in 2004 HLK visited the site in the winter and noted that many trees had been cut down along the base of the hill in the area where the hickories had been concentrated.  The north side of the hill contains a more northern type deciduous-conifer forest with White pine (Pinus alba).  The west side of the hill contains an area dominated by Red Cedar.  I have conducted extensive diurnal and nocturnal field work at this locality.


Outagamie County Recreational Trail:  The area which I have briefly studied (and only with diurnal surveys) occurs from Medina south to the Winnebago County border.  Much of the habitat is agricultural, but there are areas of hardwood forest, wetland, fields, moist open areas, and even some prairie flora in places.


Plaman County Park [T22N R17E Sec 36]:  This site contains mesic and hydric hardwood forest, sedge meadows along creeks, and fields.  I have conducted mainly diurnal surveys, but I have also done some bait trapping.


Shioctin Site [Outagamie County]:  This site contained a largely forested bog with some areas of more open bog.  In addition, there was an open area with sedge meadow and old field.  I conducted one diurnal survey at this site.


Methods:  My surveys were conducted with UV sheets, UV traps, type P and F bait traps, bait trails, tapping (limited), and diurnal collecting with nets and jars.  Follow this link for illustrations and a discussion of these survey methods.  All of the species on the following list were collected during my surveys, with the exception of Aellopos titan and Catocala connubialis (which were collected by Richard Merkhofer) and Lymatria dispar, which became common in Outagamie County after I moved to Florida.  The Merkhofer collection also contains many distributional records for a yard bordering Plaman Park not duplicated by my own survey work.  To my knowledge Outagamie County has been sparsely investigated by other Lepidopterists; I did not find any additional Outagamie County records in other collections I examined for additional WI records, including the Milwaukee Public Museum, National Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point collection, some of the James C. Parkinson collection, and the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.         


Voucher Specimens:  At least one voucher specimen of each species I report from Outagamie County is currently housed in my personal research collection, with the exception of Aellopos titan and Catocala connubialis (records obtained from the collection of Richard Merkhofer).  In addition, I have made substantial donations of Outagamie County Lepidoptera to the Milwaukee Public Museum.  I identified or verified specimens of all of the species I list from Outagamie County with the exception of some Eupithecia (determined by George Balogh).


Classification:  The classification primarily follows the Hodges et al. (1983) check list with the exception of Nymphalidae (concept of Harvey 1991) and Noctuidae, incorporating information from Poole (1995), Mitchell et al. (2006), and Zahiri et al. (2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2013).  For a more detailed discussion of adopted changes in classification from the Hodges et al. (1983) check list, see the Classification section of the Kons, Borth, and Barina Check List of Wisconsin Macrolepidoptera.  For those species listed in Hodges et al. (1983), I include the original check list number, which serves as a citation for the describing author and year of description. 


Results:  To date I can confirm the documented occurrence of 919 Lepidoptera species in the included families from Outagamie County, including 905 species of Macrolepidoptera.  These species are listed in the check list at the end of this report.  The Macrolepidoptera species totals for the best studied localities are 780 for Mosquito Hill Nature Center, 641 for Fallen Timbers Environmental Center, and 521 for an urban yard on Summer Street in the city of Appleton.  I have personally collected all but three of the 918 species during my surveys in Outagamie County.  Most of the species on the check list were recorded during a period of intensive survey between 1992 and 1995, with the exceptions noted in the discussion below.


Discussion:  It is not possible to compare the Macrolepidoptera species diversity of Outagamie County with other Wisconsin Counties, as to my knowledge similar check lists are not available for other Wisconsin counties.  I speculate in time the northern and central counties of the state will prove to be at least as diverse as Outagamie County.  At Schmeeckle Reserve in Portage County I have recorded 427 Macrolepidoptera species from just September-mid May, and that site contains fairly widespread woodland and wetland habitats.  Kons and Borth have recorded at least 520 Macrolepidoptera species from the Namekagon Barrens in Burnett County with just a few trips covering late May, late June, and early August.  Kons, Borth, and Barina have recorded 703 Macrolepidoptera species from the Dunbar Barrens in Marinette County, again with relatively few trips and coverage not including the entire flight season.  The counties containing these sites also host a variety of other habitats, including bogs.  Consequently, it seems a likely hypothesis that with additional collecting these and other counties in northern and central Wisconsin will yield species diversity totals which rival or exceed that for Outagamie County.

            It is likely that additional species occur in Outagamie County, including resident species.  The best prospects for adding new species to the list would be to collect in sites with habitat types different from those at my primary study sites (however, new species continued to turn up in the primary study sites right up until the time survey ceased, and invariably additional species could potentially be added to the totals for these sites).  Habitat like the bog near Schioctin (that I was only able to access once during the day) may have the potential to add considerably to the counties’ species total.  I am aware of at least one other bog in Outagamie County, which I have not seen, which is part of a Wisconsin State Natural Area.  Unfortunately, I learned of this site after I had discontinued my research on Wisconsin State Natural areas due to newly instated unfeasible restrictions on the required scientific collecting permits.  Surveys by Kons and Borth in Wisconsin bogs have turned up a variety of species we have not found in other habitats (with the exception of low numbers in other habitats close to bogs for some of these species).  However, this work has only been done in northern Wisconsin, and we do not know how many of these species might range as far south as Outagamie County.  None of the Outagamie County survey sites contain xeric pine forest; however, some of this habitat occurs just to the north of the County border in Shawano county, and probably also occurs in parts of Outagamie County.  Also, some areas of prairie remnant along the Outagamie County Recreational trail near the Winnebago County border might potentially have some new species, such as Papaipema silphii and Tricholita notata, species that feed on Silphium (Rings et al 1992), which is prevalent in places along that trail.  Furthermore, remnants of the barrens ecosystems (more characteristic of central and northern Wisconsin) that occur in other sites in western Outagamie County could potentially add some more species affiliated primarily with these habitats.  In addition, there is always the possibility of recording more species as dispersers or strays.  Furthermore, new species may be recorded from the county as introduced exotics.  For example, the European Noctuid Noctua pronuba was first recorded from Outagamie County and Wisconsin in 1995 (to our knowledge), and now has become established in numerous WI localities (Borth, pers. obsv.).  In 2012 Noctua pronuba was common in the Appleton yard. 

            The recorded Outagamie County Macrolepidoptera fauna includes about 65.2% of the species that we have collected or examined from Wisconsin.  If we include species reported in the literature which we have not verified from WI, the proportion drops to 62.2%.  Of course, all of these percentages must be viewed in the light that additional collecting may have the potential to expand both the lists for Wisconsin and Outagamie County. 

            Almost all of the species on the check list were recorded during the years of most intensive survey from 1992-1995, although many were recorded from prior to those years as well.  The only exceptions include the following taxa, with the most recent record in parenthesis: Callosamia promethea (1991), Sphinx chersis (1991), Haploa contigua (1987), Virbia opella (1991), Spilosoma latipennis (1991), Tertanolita mynesalis (1991), Catocala epione (1990), Catocala vidua (1991), Catocala maestosa (1991), Catocala connubialis (1991), Apamea vulgaris (1991), Xystopepla rufago (1991), Euxoa auxiliaris (1981), Euxoa comosa (1991), Ufeus plicatus (1987), and Heliothis phloxiphagus (1990).  Two species were not recorded until 1996 (when only two collecting trips were made except for running lights and bait traps in the Appleton yard), Oligia hausta and Syngrapha octoscripta.  Eight species were added from 2011-2012: Pasiphila rectangulata, Ceratomia amyntor, Zale aeruginosa, Apamea ophiogramma, Apamea unanimis, Striacosta albicosta, Elaphria chalcedonia, and Spodoptera exigua, all recorded from the Appleton yard.  Three of these species are Palearctic introductions that recently colonized Wisconsin: P. rectangulata, A. ophiogramma, and A. unanimis.  S. albicosta expanded its range east into Wisconsin sometime after 1996.  Elaphria chalcedonia and Spodoptera exigua are strays or ephemeral migrants from the southern states, for which I was aware of only single Wisconsin specimens prior to 2012.  Ceratomia amyntor and Zale aeruginosa were recorded from single specimens. 

            To date Mosquito Hill Nature Center contains the highest number of Macrolepidoptera species recorded for any of the Wisconsin sites included in the survey data set of Kons, Borth, and Barina.  A large part of this is probably due to the fact that the only other sites where there has been as much survey effort covering the entire flight season are Fallen Timbers and the Appleton yard.  In fact, due to the small number of people interested in collecting the full range of Macrolepidoptera moth taxa and the limited amount of Wisconsin moth survey data available to the scientific community, any comparisons of species diversity recorded between sites may be far more influenced by relative amounts of survey effort (and weather conditions under which survey was conducted) than actual species diversities of the sites.  However, I suspect Mosquito Hill may have an especially high number of species due to the high diversity of different habitats occurring in close proximity.  Floodplain forest, floodplain sedge meadows, spring fed wet meadow, various forest types occurring on different slopes of the hill (see introduction), a small barrens/prairie relict along limestone cliffs and slopes, old field, and prairie planting all occur in very close proximity. 

            It would appear that Mosquito Hill Nature Center has a significantly higher nocturnal Macrolepidoptera species diversity than Fallen Timbers Environmental Center.  While I have no doubt that additional species would turn up with additional collecting at both sites, both sites have been studied rather extensively, and 143 more Nocturnal Macrolepidoptera species have been found at Mosquito Hill.  However, despite the greater diversity of habitats at Mosquito Hill, this pattern is quite different from that recorded for Rhopalocera.  Extensive surveys throughout the flight season have yielded 72 species of butterflies from Fallen Timbers, compared with 68 for Mosquito Hill.  Consequently, relative comparisons of butterfly species diversity may not be good predictors of relative species diversity in other groups of Lepidoptera, or of overall Lepidoptera species diversity.

            The Macrolepidoptera species total of 521 for the Appleton yard is an indication of what diversity can potentially be recorded in an area without particularly good habitat but where intensive survey is conducted over many years.  I suspect that many sites with higher quality habitat in central and northern Wisconsin would have species lists higher than 521 Macrolepidoptera species, if thorough collecting was conducted.  However, many of the species recorded from the Appleton yard were found in much lower numbers relative to surveys in more natural habitats, and likely represent dispersers from other habitats or possibly species which do persist in urban habitats but in relatively lower numbers.  Examples of some species for which their habitat and/or host plants almost certainly do not occur in the immediate vicinity of the Appleton yard include: Semiothisa sexmacularia, Semiothisa submamorata, Semiothisa maculifascia, Calledapteryx dryopterata, Haploa contigua, Virbia laeta, Cissusa spadix, Catocala innubens, Catocala subnata, Catocala lineella, Nola cilicoides, Autographa ampla, Syngrapha octoscripta, Syngrapha epigaea, Syngrapha abstrusa, Baileya doubledayi, Psaphida electilis, Pyhirria adela, Pyhirria exprimens, Apamea vulgaris, A. apamiformis, Eremobina jocasta, Meropleon ambifusca, Chortodes inquinata, Archanara oblonga, Archanara laeta, Papaipema lysimachiae, Caradrina meralis, Elaphria georgei, Lithophane semiusta, L. patefacta, L. petulca, L. amanda, Xystopepla rufago, Anathix aggressa, Polia imbrifera, P. nimbosa, Morrisonia confusa, Euxoa redimicula, and Actebia fennica.  These species (except for C. inquinata, a wetland species for which it is not unusual to collect it in numbers in non-wetland habitats) were recorded only as isolated occurrences of one or two individuals over the survey interval.  They have been found more commonly and/or more reliably in more specialized habitats elsewhere in Outagamie County and/or Wisconsin, based on Wisconsin survey work by Kons, Borth, and Barina.  It is likely a number of other species on the Appleton list are dispersers from more specialized habitats as well, although the evidence for this is weaker.  Also, over years of study this site has accumulated a fair number of records for strays (species for which Outagamie County is outside their normal range).  Examples of species almost certainly in this category include Tertanolita mynesalis, Tertanolita floridana, Renia adspergillus, Ascalapha odorata, Mocis texana, Catocala maestosa, Thioptera nigrofimbria, Amyna octo, Tarachidia semiflava, Pseudoplusia includens, Rachiplusia ou, Achatodes zea, Euxoa comosa and Euxoa auxiliaris.  All of these taxa were recorded from isolated occurrences of only one or two individuals over the years when surveys were conducted.

            It is interesting that there are a few species which have been found in some numbers consistently between seasons in the urban habitat of the Appleton yard, but which I have never recorded from the more natural habitats in Outagamie and surrounding counties.  These species include Catocala luciana, Catocala minuta, and Anhimella contrahens.  A possible explanation for these observations is that these species may not be native to the county, but may have established populations associated with ornamental plants that occur in the urban area but are absent from natural habitats.  C. minuta is known to feed on Gleditsia (Covell 1984, Rings et al 1992), and these trees have been planted in the vicinity of the Appleton yard.  Caradrina extima is also common in the Appleton yard and has not been found in more natural habitats within Outagamie County; however, records have been obtained from more natural habitats in Portage and Waukesha Counties (pers. obsv.).  During 2012 surveys all of these species were found in the Appleton yard, except for C. luciana which flies later in the season than when these surveys were conducted. 

            The upcoming NAJLB Volume on Wisconsin Lepidoptera by Kons, Borth, and Barina, includes a preliminary list of Wisconsin Macrolepidoptera hypothesized to be dependent on dry prairie and/or barrens habitats.  Several species on this list have been collected in Outagamie County.  Some of them are based on records of one specimen from the Appleton yard and invariably represent dispersers to this site, including Semiothisa maculifascia and Xystopepla rufago.  Some other species on this list have been recorded from Mosquito Hill.  As noted in the introduction, Mosquito Hill contains a small area of barrens/prairie remnant plus a prairie planting.   Argyrostrotis anilis, Tarachidia binocula, Apamea lutosa, Hadena capsularis, and Schinia lucens have been collected there, but only rarely, with only 1-3 specimens turning up over several years of survey (A. anilis was actually collected in the floodplain forest, but this area was immediately adjacent to the prairie planting, and in close proximity to the remnant barrens/prairie habitat o the hill).  A. anilis is a widespread generalist in the southern portion of its range (Kons & Borth, pers. obsv.), but may be barrens/dry prairie dependent at the latitude of Outagamie County.  All of the preceding species have been found in numbers on more extensive areas of barrens and/or dry prairie in Wisconsin (Kons, Borth, & Barina, pers. obsv.).  Cycnia inopinatus is uncommon at Mosquito Hill, and has been collected only on the prairie planting near where Asclepias tuberosa has become established from planting (this host plant grows naturally at other sites near Mosquito Hill).  Erynnis lucilius, Erynnis brizo, Glaucopsyche lygdamus, Ulolonche culea, U. modesta, Agrotis volubilis, and Pyrrhia adela have been found in numbers in and near the remnant barrens/prairie habitat on the hill during several seasons.  Chlosyne gorgone was common on a prairie planting for several seasons preceding a burn, and has been recorded from some other localities where it has not been found consistently.

            Outagamie County hosts a considerable diversity of taxa hypothesized to be primarily associated with wetlands.  The data and analysis suporting hypotheses of wetland dependency will also be presented in the aforementioned upcoming NAJLB volume by Kons, Borth, and Barina.  Fifty hypothesized wetland obligates have been recorded from Outagamie County, including: Scopula quadrilineata, Plemyria georgeii, Ancyloxpha numitor, Poanes massasoit, Poanes viator, Euphyes dion, Euphyes conspicua, Euphyes bimacula, Hyllolycaena hyllus, Satyrium acadicum, Clossiana selene, Chlosyne harrisii, Satyrodes eurydice, Satyrodes appalachia, Phalaenostola hanhami, Melanomma auricinctaria, Hypenodes cauducus, Dyspyralis nigella, Ledaea perditalis, Catocala alabamae (not wetland dependent in much of range), Capis curvata, Nola cilicoides, Plusia contexta, Plusia venusta, Apamea nigrior, Luperina stipata, Eremobina jocasta, Meropleon diversicolor, Lemmeria digitalis, Chortodes inquinata, Chortodes defecta, Archanara oblonga, A. subflava, A. laeta, Papaipema cataphracta, P. impecuniosa, P. lysimachiae, P. inquaesita, P. rutila, P. nepheleptena, P. maritima, P. eupatori, P. unimoda, Bellura obliqua, Lithophane oriunda, Epiglaea apiata, Xanthia nr. togata, Catabena lineolata, Leucania linita, and Agrotis gladiaria.  All of these taxa have been recorded from MHNC and/or FTEC, both of which host a variety of wetland habitats (see introduction). 

            I am still in the process of computerizing all of the flight season data for Outagamie County Lepidoptera.  However, the following figure is from one of my previous unpublished reports, and shows how many species of adult butterflies have been recorded from each month, both in total and broken down by family.  While it would be desireable to break the data down into smaller intervals, the general pattern is unimodal with a peak in adult butterfly diversity during July, the middle of the WI flight season. 



            Additional collecting in Outagamie County would be very valuable for scientific and conservation purposes, either in the localities covered in this paper or new localities.  Collecting in new localities would provide more information on the distribution of Lepidoptera within the county, and a better basis for comparisons of the diversity and composition of the Lepidoptera faunas of different sites.  Collecting in habitat types not surveyed in much detail by the author could potentially add a number of new species to the county list, and even in the most intensively studied localities I had been continuing to discover new species right up until the time these surveys ended.  Collecting in the primary survey localities, in addition to potentially expanding the lists for these sites, would provide valuable comparative data on the moth faunas of these sites over time, and it has now been over ten years since I conducted surveys in Outagamie County, except for the Appleton yeard in 2012.


Acknowledgments:  I am especially grateful to my parents, Hugo & Sharon Kons Sr., for much support and tolerance for my research activities over many years.  I thank my colleagues Robert Borth and Thomas Barina for their collaboration in our study of Wisconsin Lepidoptera.  I give special thanks to Ken Hall of the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (retired) for his support and encouragement of my undergraduate Lepidoptera research activities.  I thank the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and the American Entomological Institute for lab space and infrastructural support.  For granting permission to collect on restricted public lands, I thank Jim Anderson (Mosquito Hill Nature Center), Libby Dorn (Fallen Timbers Environmental Center), and the staff of Bubolz Nature Center.  I am especially appreciative of George Balogh, who examined hundreds of my WI Geometrid specimens and who was instrumental in helping me start my research collection for this family.  George Balogh also determined specimens for all of the Outagamie County Eupithecia species.  For assisting with the accurate identification of some specimens I also thank Douglas Ferguson, Mogens Nielson, and Eric Quinter.  I thank Richard Merkhofer for showing me specimens he collected in Outagamie County, including several species I never encountered on my surveys in the county.  Hugo and Sharon Kons Sr. assisted with building light and bait traps, and Richard Merkhofer provided the initial design for the inverted cone platform bait trap.  I thank Jim Bartz for taking me on a diurnal collecting trip to a bog in Outagamie County owned by his hunting club.   For facilitating access to museum collections I thank Donald Harvey, Patricia Poole, and Robert Robbins (National Museum of Natural History) and Su Borkin (Milwaukee Public Museum).  Also, for assistance with acquiring chemicals important to collecting or genitalic dissections, I thank Niklaus Hostettler, Jim Lloyd, Robert Robbins, and David Wahl. 


Check List of the Lepidoptera of Outagamie County, Wisconsin


Species Total for Included Families              919




MACROLEPIDOPTERA               905


DREPANOIDEA                                            7

THYATIRIDAE                                              3

6235    Habrosyne scripta      

6236    Habrosyne gloriosa    

6237    Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides      


DREPANIDAE                                               4

Drepaninae                                                    3

6251    Drepana arcuata        

6252    Drepana bilineata       

6253    Eudeilinia herminiata  

Oretinae                                                         1

6255    Oreta rosea    


GEOMETROIDEA                                         169

GEOMETRIDAE                                            167

Archierinae                                                    1

6256    Archieris infans


Ennominae                                                    106

6261    Heliomata cycladata  

6270    Proitame virginalis     

6272    Eumacaria latiferrugata         

6273    Itame pustularia         

6274    Itame ribearia 

6278    Itame evagaria           

6290    Itame loricaria

6292    Itame exhauspicata   

6299    Itame coortaria           

6303    Itame subcessaria      

6321    Epelis truncataria       

6326    Semiothisa aemulataria         

6330    Semiothisa ulsterata  

6340    Semiothisa minorata  

6431.1 Semiothisa masquerata Fgn. 

6342    Semiothisa bisignata  

6343    Semiothisa sexmacularia      

6347    Semiothisa pinistrobata          

6348    Semiothisa fissinotata

6350    Semiothisa submarmorata    

6351    Semiothisa oweni       

6358    Semiothisa ordinata   

6362    Semiothisa continuata           

6386    Semiothisa ocellinata 

6397    Semiothisa mellistrigata         

6405    Semiothisa gnophosaria        

6436    Ematurga amitaria     

6570    Aethalura intertexta    

6582    Iridopsis vellivolata     

6583    Iridopsis ephyraria      

6584    Iridopsis humaria        

6588    Iridopsis larvaria         

6590    Anavitrinelia pampinaria        

6597    Ectropis crepuscularia           

6598    Protoboarmia porcelaria        

6620    Melanolophia canadaria         

6621    Melanolophia signataria         

6637    Eufidonia convergaria

6640    Biston betularia          

6651    Lycia ursaria  

6654    Hypagyrtis unipunctata          

6656    Hypagyrtis piniata      

6658    Phigalia titea   

6660    Phigalia strigitaria       

6662    Paleacrita vernata      

6663    Paleacrita merriccata

6665    Erannis tiliaria 

6666    Lomographa semiclarata       

6667    Lomographa vestaliata          

6668    Lomographa glomeraria        

6677    Cabera erythemaria   

6678    Cabera variolaria       

6720    Lytrosis unitaria          

6724    Euchlaena serrata      

6726    Euchlaena obtusaria  

6728    Euchlaena effecta     

6729    Euchlaena johnsonaria          

6734    Euchlaena marginaria

6739    Euchlaena irraria        

6740    Xanthotype urticaria   

6743    Xanthotype sospeta   

6753    Pero honestaria          

6754    Pero hubneraria         

6755    Pero morrisonaria      

6763    Nacophora quernaria 

6796    Campaea perlata       

6797    Ennomos magnaria   

6798    Ennomos subsignaria

6799    Epirranthis substriataria         

6804    Petrophora subaequaria        

6807    Tacparia detersata     

6811    Homochlodes lactispargaria  

6812    Homochlodes fritillaria           

6815    Gueneria similaria      

6819    Metanema inatomaria

6820    Metanema determiniata         

6822    Metarranthis duaria    

6823    Metarranthis angularia           

6825    Metarranthis indeclinata         

6826    Metarranthis hypochraria       

6827    Metarranthis refractaria         

6835    Cepphis armataria     

6836    Anagoga pulveraria occiduaria          

6837    Probole alienaria

6838    Probole amicaria        

6839.1 Probole nyssaria        

6840    Plagodis serinaria       

6842    Plagodis phlogosaria  

6843    Plagodis fervidaria     

6844    Plagodis alcoolaria     

6863    Caripeta divisata        

6864    Caripeta piniata          

6867    Caripeta angustiorata 

6884    Besma endropiaria     

6885    Besma quercivoraria 

6888    Lambdina fiscellaria   

6894    Lambdina fervidaria   

6906    Nepytia canosaria      

6912    Sicya macularia         

6941    Eusarca confusaria    

6963    Tetracis crocallata     

6964    Tetracis cachexiata   

6965    Eugonobapta nivosaria          

6966    Eutrapela clemataria  

6982    Prochoerodes lineola 

7009    Nematocampa resistaria       


Geometrinae                                                  4

7048    Nemoria mimosaria   

7053    Dichorda iridaria         

7058    Synchlora aerata       

7071    Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria           


Sterrhinae                                                      9

7114    Idaea demissaria        

7132    Pleuroprucha insulsaria         

7139    Cyclophora pendulinaria        

7146    Haematopis grataria  

7157    Scopula cacuminaria 

7159    Scopula limboundata 

7164    Scopula junctaria       

7165    Scopula quadrilineata

7169    Scopula inductata


Larentiinae                                                     48

7189    Dysstroma hersiliata  

7196    Eulithis diversilineata  

7197    Eulithis gracilineata    

7201    Eulithis testata

7205    Eulithis flavibrunneata

7206    Eulithis explanata       

7216    Plemyria georgeii       

7229    Hydriomena perfracta           

7236    Hydriomena renunciata         

7237    Hydriomena transfigurata      

7254    Hydriomena ruberata 

7285    Triphosa haesitata      

7290    Coryphista meadii      

7292    Hydria prunivorata     

7293    Rheumaptera hastata

7307    Mesoleuca ruficillata  

7312    Spargania magnoliata

7329    Anticlea vasiliata        

7230    Anticlea multiferata    

7368    Xanthorhoe labradorensis      

7388    Xanthorhoe ferrugata 

7390    Xanthorhoe lacustrata

7394    Epirrhoe alternata      

7399    Euphyia intermediata 

7414    Orthonama obstipata 

7416    Orthonama centrostrigaria     

7419    Hydrelia lucata           

7423    Hydrelia albifera         

7428    Venusia comptaria     

7430    Trichodezia albovittata           

7433    Epirrita autumnata     

7437    Operophtera bruceata           

7440    Eubaphe mendica      

7445    Horisme intestinata    

7449    Eupithecia palpata     

7474    Eupithecia miserulata

7491    Eupithecia fletcherata

7518    Eupithecia intricata    

7529    Eupithecia absinthiata

7530    Eupithecia swettii       

7605    Eupithecia ravocostaliata       

            Pasiphila rectangulata             [New Addition 2012]

7637    Cladara limitaria         

7639    Cladara atroliturata    

7640    Lobophora nivigerata 

7645    Heterophleps refusaria          

7647    Heterophleps triguttaria          

7648    Dyspteris abortivaria  


EPIPLEMIDAE                                               1

7653    Calledapteryx dryopterata     


RHOPALOCERA                                          89

HESPERIIDAE                                               30

Pyrginae                                                         8

3870    Epargyreus clarus      

3910    Thorybes pylades      

3945    Erynnis icelus 

3946    Erynnis brizo  

3947    Erynnis juvenalis        

3958    Erynnis lucilius           

3966    Pyrgus communis      

3977    Pholisora catullus       


Heteropterinae                                              1

3982    Carterocephalus palemon     


Hesperiinae                                                   21

4004    Ancyloxpha numitor   

4012    Thymelicus lineola     

4013    Hylephila phyleus       

4033    Hesperia sassacus     

4036    Polites coras  

4041    Polites themistocles   

4043    Polites mystic 

4047    Wallengrenia egeremet          

4048    Pompeius verna         

4049    Atalopedes campestris          

4051    Atrytone logan

4058    Poanes massasoit      

4059    Poanes hobomok       

4064    Poanes viator 

4072    Euphyes dion

4075    Euphyes conspicua   

4077    Euphyes bimacula     

4078    Euphyes vestris         

4096    Amblyscirtes hegon   

4105    Amblyscirtes vialis     

4111    Lerodea eufala           


PAPILIONOIDEA                                          59

PAPLIONIDAE                                              4

4159    Papilio polyxenus       

4170    Papilio cresephontes  

4176    Papilio glaucus           

4176.1 Papilio canadensis     


PIERIDAE                                                      7

4195    Pieris napi      

4197    Pieris rapae    

4209    Colias philodice          

4210    Colias eurytheme       

4220    Colias interior 

4224    Zerene cessonia        

4237    Eurema lisa    


LYCAENIDAE                                                15

4249    Feniseca tarquinius    

4251    Lycaena phlaeas        

4253    Gaeides xanthoides   

4256    Hyllolycaena hyllus    

4285    Satyrium liparops       

4282    Satyrium calanus       

4281    Satyrium edwardsii    

4283    Satyrium caryaevorum          

4275    Satyrium titus 

4278    Satyrium acadicum   

4326    Callophrys henrici      

4336    Strymon melinus        

4361    Everes comyntas       

4363    Celastrina ladon [complex]    

4372    Glaucopsyche lygdamus


NYMPHALIDAE                                            33

4411    Libytheana carinenta 

4420    Polygonia interrogationis        

4421    Polygonia comma      

4429    Polygonia progne       

4430    Nymphalis vau-album

4432    Nymphalis antiopa     

4433    Aglais milberti 

4434    Vanessa virginiensis  

4435    Vanessa cardui          

4437    Vanessa atlanta         

4440    Junonia coenia           

4447    Euptoieta claudia       

4450    Speyeria cybele         

4451    Speyeria aphrodite     

4459    Speyeria atlantis        

4464    Clossiana selene        

4465    Clossiana bellona       

4481    Phyciodes tharos       

4481.1 Phyciodes pascoensis           

4482    Phyciodes batesii       

4489    Chlosyne gorgone      

4490    Chlosyne nycteis       

4491    Chlosyne harrisii        

4522    Basilarchia arthemis  

4523    Basilarchia archippus 

4557    Astereocampa celtis  

4562.1 Astereocampa clyton 

4568.1 Enodia anthedon        

4568.3 Satyrodes eurydice    

4569    Satyrodes appalachia

4578    Megisto cymela         

4587    Cercyonis pegala       

4614    Danaus plexippus


LASIOCAMPOIDEA                                     5

LASIOCAMPIDAE                                        5

Macromphaliinae                                          2

7670    Tolype velleda

7673    Tolype laricis  

Gastropachinae                                            1

7687    Phyllodesma americana        

Lasiocampinae                                              2

7698    Malacosoma disstria  

7701    Malacosoma americanum


BOMBYCOIDEA                                           34


APATELODIDAE                                          1

7665    Olceclostera angelica


SATURNIIDAE                                              6

Citheroniinae                                                             1

7715    Dryocampa rubicunda           

Hemileucinae                                                 1

7746    Automeris io   

Saturniinae                                                    4

7757    Antheraea polyphemus          

7758    Actias luna     

7764    Callosamia promethea           

7767    Hyalophora cecropia 


SPHINGIDAE                                                             28

Sphinginae                                                    18

7775    Manduca sexta          

7776    Manduca quinquemaculata   

7784    Dolba hyloeus

7786    Ceratomia amyntor                 [New Addition 2012]

7787    Ceratomia undulosa   

7796    Sphinx eremitus         

7802    Sphinx chersis           

7807    Sphinx canadensis     

7809    Sphinx kalmiae          

7810    Sphinx gordius (incl. poecile) 

7811    Sphinx luscitiosa        

7817    Lapara bombycoides 

7821    Smerinthus jamaicensis         

7822    Smerinthus cerisyi     

7824    Paonias excaecatus  

7825    Paonias myops          

7827    Lathoe juglandis         

7828    Pachysphinx modesta           


Macroglossinae                                            10

7849    Aellopos titan                                       [Col. Richard Merkhofer]

7853    Hemaris thysbe          

7855    Hemaris diffinis          

7859    Eumorpha pandorus  

7870    Sphecodina abbottii   

7871    Deidamia inscripta     

7873    Amphion floridensis   

7885    Darapsa myron          

7886    Darapsa pholus          

7894    Hyles lineata  


NOCTUOIDEA                                              600


NOTODONTIDAE                                         40

7895    Clostera albosigma    

7898    Clostera strigosa        

7901    Clostera apicalis         

7902    Datana ministra          

7903    Datana angusii           

7906    Datana contractata    

7907    Datana integerrima    

7908    Datana perspicua       

7915    Nadata gibbosa          

7917    Hyperaeschra georgica         

7919    Peridea basitriens      

7920    Peridea angulosa       

7921    Peridea ferruginea     

7922    Pheosia rimosa          

7924    Odontosia elegans     

7928    Notodonta simplaria   

7929    Nerice bidentata         

7930    Ellida caniplaga          

7931    Gluphisia septentrionis           

7933    Gluphisia avimacula  

7934    Gluphisia lintneri         

7936    Furcula borealis         

7937    Furcula cinerea          

7939    Furcula occidentalis   

7941    Furcula modesta        

7952    Symmerista canicosta           

7953    Symmerista leucitys  

7957    Dasylophia anguina   

7975    Macrurocampa marthesia     

7983    Heterocampa obliqua

7994    Heterocampa guttivitta          

7995    Heterocampa biundata          

7998    Lochmaeus manteo   

7999    Lochmaeus bilineata  

8005    Schizura ipomoeae    

8006    Schizura badia           

8007    Schizura unicornis     

8011    Schizura leptinoides   

8012    Oligocentria semirufescens   

8017    Oligocentria lignicolor


NOCTUIDAE                                                 560


Herminiinae                                                   40

8322    Idia americalis

8323    Idia aemula    

8323.1 Idia concisa    

8321.2 Idia herminioides        

8324    Idia majoralis  

8326    Idia rotundalis 

8327    Idia forbesi     

8328    Idia julia          

8329    Idia diminuendis         

8334    Idia lubricalis  

8338    Phalaenophana pyramusalis 

8340    Zanclognatha lituralis 

8345    Zanclognatha laevigata          

8348    Zanclognatha pedipilalis species A    

8349    Zanclognatha protumnusalis  

8349.1 Zanclognatha dentata (=nr. protumnusalis of previous versions)     

8351    Zanclognatha cruralis species A        

8352    Zanclognatha marcidilinea (formerly listed as jacchusalis)  

8353    Zanclognatha ochreipennis    

8355    Chytolita morbidalis   

8356    Chytolita petrealis      

8357    Macrochilo absorptalis           

8357.1 Macrochilo hypocritialis Fgn. 

8358    Macrochilo litophora  

8359    Macrochilo bivittata    

8360    Macrochilo orciferalis

8361    Macrochilo louisiana  

8362    Phalaenostola metonalis        

8363    Phalaenostola eumelusalis    

8364    Phalaenostola larentioides     

8365    Phalaenostola hanhami         

8366    Tetanolita mynesalis  

8368    Tetanolita floridana [complex]           

8370    Bleptina caradrinalis   

8379    Renia factiosalis         

8384.1 Renia flavipunctalis    

8386    Renia adspergillus      

8387    Renia sobrialis

8393    Lascoria ambigualis   

8397    Palthis angulalis


Rivulinae                                                        2

8404    Rivula propinqualis


Subfamily Unknown                                     1         

8412    Melanomma auricinctaria


Hypenodinae                                                             3

8420    Hypenodes caducus  

            Hypenodes fractilinea [complex]       

8423    Hypenodes sombrus


Subfamily Unknown                                     2

8426    Dyspyralis illocata      

8428    Dyspyralis nigella       


Hypeninae                                                      14

8441    Hypena manalis         

8442    Hypena baltimoralis   

8443    Hypena bijugalis         

8444    Hypena palparia         

8445    Hypena abalienalis     

8446    Hypena deceptalis     

8447    Hypena madefactalis 

8448    Hypena sordidula       

8450    Hypena atomaria       

8452    Hypena edictalis        

8455    Hypena eductalis       

8461    Hypena humuli           

8465    Hypena scabra


Subfamily Unknown                                     1         

8479    Spargaloma sexpunctata       


Pangraptinae                                                             2

8490    Pangrapta decoralis   

8491    Ledaea perditalis


Boletobiinae                                                  2         

8499    Metalectra discalis     

8500    Metalectra quadrisignata


Calpinae                                                         1         

8536    Calyptra canadensis


Scoliopteryginae                                           1

8555    Scoliopteryx libatrix


Eulepidotinae                                                            3

8574    Anticarsia gemmatalis           

8587    Panopoda rufimargo  

8588    Panopoda carneicosta


Erebinae (=Catocalinae)                              64       

8591    Phoberia atomaris      

8592    Cissusa spadix           

8641    Drasteria grandirena  

8649    Ascalapha odorata     

8651    Lesmone detrahens   

8689    Zale lunata     

8692    Zale galbanata

8694    Zale aeruginosa          [New Addition, 2011]  

8695    Zale undularis 

8697    Zale minerea  

8698    Zale phaeocapna       

8699    Zale obliqua    

8702a  Zale submediana sp. 1           

8703    Zale duplicata 

8704    Zale helata     

8713.1 Zale intenta  (formerly lunifera)         

8716    Zale unilineata

8717    Zale horrida    

8719    Euparthenos nubilis    

8727    Parallelia bistriaris      

8731    Euclidia cuspidea       

8738    Caenurgina crassiuscula       

8739    Caenurgina erechtea 

8745    Mocis texana 

8764    Argyrostrotis anilis      

8770    Catocala innubens     

8771    Catocala piatrix          

8773    Catocala epione         

8778    Catocala habilis          

8779    Catocala serena         

8781    Catocala judith           

8784    Catocala obscura       

8788    Catocala retecta        

8792    Catocala vidua           

8793    Catocala maestosa    

8795    Catocala palaeogama

8796    Catocala nebulosa     

8797    Catocala subnata       

8798    Catocala neogama

            Catocala communis   

8801    Catocala ilia   

8802    Catocala cerogama   

8803    Catocala relicta          

8805    Catocala unijuga        

8806    Catocala parta           

8808    Catocala luciana        

8817    Catocala briseis         

8822    Catocala meskei        

8832    Catocala cara

8833    Catocala concumbens           

8834    Catocala amatrix       

8851    Catocala coccinata    

8857    Catocala ultronia        

8858    Catocala crataegi       

8863    Catocala mira

8864    Catocala grynea                    

8867    Catocala blandula

8869    Catocala alabamae    

8873    Catocala similis          

8874    Catocala minuta         

8876    Catocala micronympha         

8877    Catocala connubialis                           [Col. Richard Merkhofer]

8878    Catocala amica          

8878.1 Catocala lineella


Arctiinae                                                        32

8043    Eilema bicolor

8045.1 Crambidia pallida       

8090    Hypoprepia fucosa    

8098    Clemensia albata                                                                   

8109    Haploa reversa          

8110    Haploa contigua         

8111    Haploa lecontei          

8112    Haploa confusa          

8114    Virbia laeta     

8818    Virbia opella   

            Virbia nr. opella

8121    Virbia aurantiaca        

8123    Virbia ferruginosa       

8129    Pyrrharctia isabella    

8131    Estigmene acrea        

8133    Spilisoma latipennis   

8134    Spilosoma congrua    

8137    Spilosoma virginica    

8140    Hyphantria cunea      

8156    Phragmatobia fuliginosa        

8171    Apantesis nais

8175    Grammia virguncula  

8196    Grammia parthenice  

8197    Grammia virgo           

8199    Grammia arge           

8203    Halysidota tessellaris 

8228    Cycnia inopinatus      

8230    Cycnia tenera

8231    Cycnia oregonensis   

8238    Euchaetes egle                                                                      

8262    Ctenucha virginica     

8267    Cisseps fulvicollis


Lymantriinae                                                 7

8293    Dasychira dorsipennata         

8294    Dasychira vagans      

8300    Dasychira cinnamomea        

8302    Dasychira obliquata   

8314    Orgyia definita           

8316    Orgyia leucostigma    

8318    Lymantria dispar                                 [Col. Hugo & Sharon Kons, Sr.]


Euteliinae                                                       3

8955    Marathyssa inficita     

8956    Marathyssa basalis    

8957    Paectes oculatrix


Risobinae                                                       4

8969    Baileya doubledayi     

8970    Baileya ophthalmica  

8971    Baileya dormitans      

8972    Baileya levitans


Chloephorinae                                              2         

8974    Characoma nilotica    

8975    Nycteola frigidana


Nolinae                                                           7

8983    Meganola miniscula   

8983.1 Meganola phylla         

8983.2 Meganola spodia        

8990    Nola cilicoides

8992    Nola triquetrana         

8995    Nola ovilla      

            Nola species


Bagisarinae                                                   1

9070    Amyna octo


Subfamily Unknown                                     2

9038    Hyperstrotia villificans

9040    Hyperstrotia secta      


Eustrotiinae                                                   11

9044    Thioptera nigrofimbria

9046    Lithacodia bellicula     

9047    Lithacodia muscosula

9048    Lithacodia albidula     

9051    Lithacodia musta        

9049    Maliattha synochitis   

9053    Pseudostrotia carneola          

9284    Anterastria teratophora          

9059    Capis curvata                         

            Eustrotinae sp. (undescribed?)


Condicinae                                                    7

9690    Condica videns          

9696    Condica vecors          

9720    Ogdoconta cinereola 

9057    Homophoberia apicosa          

9065    Leuconycta diphteroides        

9066    Leuconycta lepidula   

9661    Crambodes talidiformis


Plusiinae                                                        22

8880    Abrostola ovalis          

8881    Abrostola urentis        

8887    Trichoplusia ni

8889    Ctenoplusia oxygramma       

8890    Pseudoplusia includens         

8895    Rachiplusia ou           

8896    Diachrysia aeroides   

8897    Diachrysia balluca     

8898    Allagrapha aerea        

8899    Pseudeva purpurigera           

8905    Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides 

8907    Megalographa biloba 

8908    Autographa precationis          

8923    Autographa ampla     

8924    Anagrapha falcifera   

8926    Syngrapha octoscripta           

8927    Syngrapha epigaea    

8940    Syngrapha abstrusa   

8950    Plusia putnami

            Plusia magnimacula  

8952    Plusia contexta          

8953    Plusia venusta


Acontiinae                                                     5

9085    Tarachidia semiflava 

9089    Tarachidia binocula    

9090    Tarachidia candefacta           

9095    Tarachidia erastrioides           

9145    Acontia terminimaculata


Amphipyrinae                                                3         

9638    Amphipyra pyramidoides       

9639    Amphipyra tragopoginis         

9640    Amphipyra glabella    


Stiriinae                                                          1

9754    Plagiomimicus pityochromus


Eriopinae                                                       2

9631    Callopistria mollissima           

9633    Callopistria cordata    


Psaphidinae                                                   5

10012  Psaphida electilis       

10014  Psaphida rolandi        

10016  Psaphida styracis       

10019  Psaphida resumens   

10021  Copivaleria grotei       


Heliothinae                                                    8

11063  Pyrrhia adela Laf. & Mikkola 

11064  Pyrrhia exprimens     

11068  Helicoverpa zea         

11072  Heliothis phloxiphagus           

11128  Schinia arcigera         

11135  Schinia rivulosa          

11149  Schinia trifascia         

11174  Schinia lucens


Agaristinae                                                    3

9299    Eudryas unio  

9301    Eudryas grata

9314    Alypia octomaculata


Pantheinae                                                     5

9177    Panthea acronyctoides          

9182    Panthea furcilla

9184    Colocasia flavicornis  

9185    Colocasia propinquilinea        

9189    Charadra deridens     



Raphiinae                                                       1         

9193    Raphia frater  


Acronictinae                                                  33

9062    Cerma cerintha

9200    Acronicta americana 

9203    Acronicta dactylina    

9205    Acronicta lepusculina 

9206    Acronicta leporina      

9207    Acronicta innotata      

9209    Acronicta radcliffei     

9212    Acronicta grisea         

9219    Acronicta connecta    

9221    Acronicta funeralis     

9225    Acronicta vinnula       

9226    Acronicta superans    

9227    Acronicta laetifica      

9229    Acronicta hasta          

9235    Acronicta spinigera    

9236    Acronicta morula       

9237    Acronicta interrupta   

9238    Acronicta lobeliae      

9241    Acronicta fragilis        

9242    Acronicta exilis           

9243    Acronicta ovata          

9244    Acronicta modica       

9245    Acronicta haesitata    

9247    Acronicta tristis          

9250    Acronicta inclara        

9251    Acronicta retardata    

9257    Acronicta impleta       

9259    Acronicta noctivaga   

9261    Acronicta impressa    

9272    Acronicta oblinata      

9280    Simyra henrici sp. B  

9281    Agriopodes fallax       

9286    Harrisimemna trisignata


Cucullinae                                                      5

10194  Cucullia intermedia    

10197  Cucullia florea

10198  Cucullia postera         

10200  Cucullia asteroides     

10202  Cucullia convexipennis


Noctuinae                                                      257

9619    Phosphila miselioides

9326    Apamea verbascoides           

9328    Apamea nigrior          

9329    Apamea cariosa         

9332    Apamea vulgaris        

9333    Apamea lignicolora    

9343    Apamea apamiformis

9344    Apamea plutonia        

9348    Apamea amputatrix   

9351    Apamea alia   

9362.1 Apamea ophiogramma           [New Addition, 2013]

9364    Apamea sordens        

9367    Apamea dubitans       

9372    Apamea lutosa           

9373    Apamea helva

9382    Apamea devastator   

            Apamea unanimis                   [New Addition, 2013]

9391    Luperina passer         

9393    Luperina stipata          

9398    Eremobina jocasta     

9404    Oligia modica 

9406    Oligia fractilinea         

9408    Oligia exhausta          

9409    Oligia hausta/semicana cmplx.         

9413    Oligia tonsa    

9419    Oligia mactata

9427    Meropleon diversicolor          

9428    Meropleon ambifusca

9429    Lemmeria digitalis      

9431    Parastichtis suspecta 

9433    Xylomoia chagnoni    

9435    Spartiniphaga inops   

9437    Chortodes inquinata   

9443    Chortodes defecta     

9449    Archanara oblonga    

9450    Archanara subflava   

9451    Archanara laeta         

9452    Macronoctua onusta  

9453    Celaena reniformis    

9454    Amphipoea velata      

9456    Amphipoea interoceanica      

9457    Amphipoea americana          

9464    Papaipema cerina      

9466    Papaipema cataphracta        

            Papaipema sp.           

9471    Papaipema arctivorens          

9473    Papaipema impecuniosa       

9478    Papaipema leucostigma        

9479    Papaipema lysimachiae        

9480    Papaipema pterisii     

9483    Papaipema inquaesita           

9484    Papaipema rutila        

9486    Papaipema birdi         

9490    Papaipema nepheleptena      

9495    Papaipema furcata    

9496    Papaipema nebris      

9497    Papaipema necopina 

9500    Papaipema maritima 

9501    Papaipema eupatori   

9509    Papaipema unimoda  

9513    Hydraecia immanis    

9514    Hydraecia micacea   

9520    Achatodes zeae         

9525    Bellura obliqua           

9545    Euplexia benesimilis  

9546    Phlogophora iris         

9547    Phlogophora periculosa         

9549    Enargia decolor          

9550    Enargia infumata       

9551    Enargia mephisto       

9555    Ipimorpha pleonectusa          

9556    Chytonix palliatricula  

9557    Chytonix sensilis complex sp. 1        

9560    Dypterygia rozmani   

9578    Hyppa xylinoides       

9582    Nedra ramosula         

9626    Trachea delicata        

9637.1 Magusa divaricata     

9647    Athetis miranda          

9649    Athetis mendosa        

9654    Caradrina meralis      

9656    Caradrina extima       

9657    Caradrina multifera    

9662    Balsa malana 

9663    Balsa tristrigella          

9664    Balsa labecula

9665    Spodoptera exigua

9666    Spodoptera frugiperda           

9669    Spodoptera ornithogalli          

9671    Spodoptera dolichos  

9678    Elaphria versicolor

9679    Elaphria chalcedonia 

9680    Elaphria georgei         

9681    Elaphria festivoides    

9684    Elaphria grata 

9688    Galgula partita

9815    Cosmia calami           

9818    Amolita fessa 

9874    Xylena curvimacula   

9878    Lithomoia germana    

9881    Homoglaea hiricina    

9885    Lithophane semiusta  

9886    Lithophane patefacta 

9887    Lithophane bethunei   

9888    Lithophane innominata           

9889    Lithophane petulca     

9891    Lithophane amanda   

9892    Lithophane disposita  

9893    Lithophane hemina    

9894    Lithophane oriunda    

9910    Lithophane antennata

9914    Lithophane laticinerea

9915    Lithophane grotei       

9916    Lithophane unimoda  

9917    Lithophane fagina      

9922    Lithophane pexata     

9929    Pyreferra hesperidago           

9930    Pyreferra citromba    

9932    Pyreferra pettiti          

9933    Eupsilia vinulenta       

9933.1 Eupsilia sidus  [complex]

9935    Eupsilia tristigmata     

9936    Eupsilia morrisoni       

9939    Eupsilia devia 

9942    Xystopepla rufago      

9942    Metaxaglaea inulta     

9947    Epiglaea apiata          

9950    Chaetaglaea sericea  

9952    Eucirroedia pampina  

9957    Sunira bicolorago       

9961    Anathix ralla   

9962    Anathix puta   

9963    Anathix aggressa       

9965    Xanthia togata

9998    Brachylomia algens   

10033  Catabena lineolata     

10055  Apharetra dentata      

10059  Homohadena badistriga         

10067  Adita chionanthi         

10223  Discestra trifolii          

10265  Sideridis rosea           

10272  Mamestra curialis      

10275  Polia nimbosa

10276  Polia imbrifera

10280  Polia purpurissata      

10288  Polia detracta 

10292  Melanchra adjuncta   

10293  Melanchra picta         

10295  Melanchra assimilis   

10297  Lacanobia atlantica    

10299  Lacanobia subjuncta  

10300  Spirameter grandis    

10301  Spirameter lutra         

10304  Trichordestra legitima

10317  Hadena capsularis     

10368  Lacinipolia meditata   

10370  Lacinipolia lustralis     

10372  Lacinipolia anguina    

10397  Lacinipolia renigera    

10405  Lacinipolia lorea         

10406  Lacinipolia olivacea    

10431  Faronta diffusa           

10436  Aletia oxygala

10438  Pseudaletia unipuncta

10440  Leucania linita

10444  Leucania phragmatidicola      

10445  Leucania linda

10446  Leucania multilinea    

10446.1           Leucania lapidaria      

10447  Leucania commoides

10449  Leucania insueta        

10459  Leucania inermis        

10462  Leucania pseudargyria          

10487  Orthosia rubescens    

10488  Orthosia garmani       

10490  Orthosia revicta         

10491  Orthosia alurina          

10495  Orthosia hibisci          

10501  Crocigrapha normani 

10513  Egira dolosa   

10518  Achatia distincta         

10520  Morrisonia evicta       

10521  Morrisonia confusa    

10291  Morrisonia latex         

10524  Nephelodes minians  

10530  Anhimella contrahens

10532  Homorthodes furfurata          

10563  Protorthodes oviduca 

10567  Ulolonche culea         

10569  Ulolonche modesta    

10578  Pseudorthodes vecors           

10585  Orthodes crenulata    

10289  Orthodes goodelli       

10597  Orthodes cynica        

10627  Tricholita signata        

10648  Agrotis gladiaria         

10651  Agrotis venerabilis      

10659  Agrotis volubilis          

10663  Agrotis ipsilon 

10664  Agrotis subterranea    

10670  Feltia jaculifera           

10674  Feltia subgothica        

10675  Feltia tricosa   

10676  Feltia herilis    

10680  Trichosilia geniculata

10705  Euxoa messoria         

10731  Euxoa auxiliaris          

10755  Euxoa declarata         

10780  Euxoa comosa           

10793  Euxoa scholastica      

10803  Euxoa velleripennis    

10805  Euxoa tessellata         

10807  Euxoa albipennis        

10838  Euxoa detersa

10851  Euxoa redimicula       

10854  Euxoa servita 

10865  Euxoa perpolita

10878  Striacosta albicosta    

10902  Euagrotis forbesi        

10903  Euagrotis illapsa         

10911  Anicla infecta 

10915  Peridroma saucia       

10924  Actebia fennica          

10891  Ochropleura implecta

10917  Diarsia rubifera          

10919  Diarsia jucunda          

10926  Spaelotis clandestina 

10928  Graphiphora augur     

10929  Eurois occulta

10942  Xestia c-nigrum          

10942.1           Xestia dolosa  

10943  Xestia normaniana     

10944  Xestia smithii  

10968  Xestia badicollis         

10969  Xestia dilucida            

10988  Coenophila opacifrons           

10955  Agnorisma badinodis

10954  Agnorisma bugrai       

10950  Pseudohermonassa bicarnea

10951  Pseudohermonassa tenuicula           

10994  Cerastis tenebrifera   

10996  Cerastis salicarum     

11000  Anaplectoides prasina

11001  Anaplectoides pressus           

11006  Protolampra brunneicollis      

11007  Eueretagrotis sigmoides        

11008  Eueretagrotis perattenta        

11009  Eueretagrotis attenta  

11010  Lycophota phyllophora          

11012  Cryptocala acadiensis           

11012.1           Noctua pronuba         

11029  Abagrotis alternata     

11043  Abagrotis cupida        

11044  Abagrotis brunneipennis        

11045  Abagrotis anchocelioides       

11052  Ufeus plicatus

            Undet. Noctuinae       


Some Other Lepidoptera Families


HEPIALIDAE                                                 1

18        Sthenopis argenteomaculatus           

COSSIDAE                                                    2

2693    Prionoxystus robiniae

2676    Acossus populi           

ATTEVIDAE                                                  1

2401    Atteva punctella         

YPONOMEUTIDAE                                      1

2420    Yponomeuta multipunctella   

ZYGAENOIDEA                                            8

ZYGAENIDAE                                                           1

4624    Harrisina americana  

LIMACODIDAE                                             7

4652    Tortricidia testacea    

4653    Tortricidia pallida        

4659    Packardia geminata   

4665    Lithacodes fasciola    

4667    Apoda y-inversum     

4668    Apoda biguttata          

4697    Euclea delphini           

THYRIDIDAE                                                 1

6076    Thyris maculata         


References Cited


Covell, Charles V. Jr.  1984.  A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America.  Boston, Massachusetts, Houghton Mifflin Company.  496 pp.

Ebner, James A. 1970.  The Butterflies of Wisconsin.  Board of Trustees, Milwaukee Public Museum.

Harvey, Donald J.  1991.  Higher Classification of the Nymphalidae.  Appendix B in The Development and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns by H. F. Nijhout. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hodges, Ronald W. et. al.  1983.  Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico.  Great Britian, University Press, Cambridge.  284 pp.

Kons, Hugo L. Jr., Robert J. Borth, and Thomas S. Barina.  2007.  Contributions to a Check List of the Lepidoptera of Wisconsin (Macrolepidoptera Families: Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae; also including: Hepialidae, Cossidae, Attevidae, Yponomeutidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae, and Thyrididae).  North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC.    

Mitchell, Andrew, Charles Mitter, and Jerome C. Regier.  2006.  Systematics and evolution of the cutworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): evidence from two protein-coding nuclear genes.  Systematic Entomology, 31: 21-46.

Poole, Robert W.  1995.  Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (part) in Dominick, R. B. et al., The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 26.1.

Scott, James A.  1986.  The Butterflies of North America.  Stanford University Press.  Stanford, California.

Zahiri, Reza, Ian J. Kitching, J. Donald Lafontaine, Marko Mutanen, Lauri Kaila, Jeremy Holloway & Niklas Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuouidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta.

Zahiri, Reza, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, J. Donald Lafontaine, Marko Mutanen, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2012a. Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea). Systematic Entomology, 37: 102-124.

Zahiri, Reza, J. Donald Lafontaine, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, B. Christian Schmidt, Lauri Kaila, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2012b. Major lineages of Nolidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) elucidated by molecular phylogenetics. Cladistics 1 (2012): 1-23.

Zahiri, Reza, J. Donald Lafontaine, Christian Schmidt, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, Marko Mutanen, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2013. Relationships among the basal lineages of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) based on eight gene regions. Zoologica Scripta.

Zaspel, Jennifer M. & Susan J. Weller. 2006. Review of the generic limits of the tiger moth genera Virbia Walker and Virbia Herrich-Schaffer (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Arctiinae) and their biogeography.