North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC

 

Contributions to a Check List of the Lepidoptera of Mosquito Hill Nature Center in Outagamie County, Wisconsin

(Macrolepidoptera Families: Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae; also including: Hepialidae, Cossidae, Attevidae, Yponomeutidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae, and Thyrididae)

 

By Hugo L. Kons Jr.

 

Posted on the Web 8 September 2007

 

Most Recent Update: Feb. 2014

 

Note: While this check list does not contain detailed information for the included species, an upcoming volume of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity will present phenology data reported for five day intervals, habitat data and analysis, hypotheses of habitat dependency for many of the included species, and other information and analyses. To receive an e-mail notification when this volume becomes available, contact the author at hkonsjr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: I present a check list of 794 species of Lepidoptera collected at Mosquito Hill Nature Center from 1989-1995, including 783 species of Macrolepidoptera. I hypothesize Mosquito Hill Nature Center may have an especially high concentration of Lepidoptera species diversity due to the numerous habitat types present in close proximity.

Introduction: Mosquito Hill Nature Center (N 4422.8 W 8842.3) contains a variety of different habitat types including sedge meadow, floodplain hardwood forest (on the Wolf River floodplain), prairie planting, fields, a small wet meadow spring seep area, and a diverse hill containing varied forest types on the different slopes as well as limestone cliffs/hillside with small areas with some barrens/prairie character. Some prairie/barrens vegetation present in the latter area includes lead plant (Amorpha canascens), Downy Phlox (Phlox pilosa), Pucoon (Lithospermum sp.), and Rock Cress (Arabyia sp.). The south side of the hill contains eastern deciduous forest with Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata), Bitternut Hickory, Oaks (Quercus sp.), Poplars (Populus sp.), Elms (Ulmus sp.), and other hardwoods. However, in 2004 HLK visited the site in the winter and noted that many trees had been cut down along the base of the hill in the area where the hickories had been concentrated. The north side of the hill contains a more northern type deciduous-conifer forest with White pine (Pinus alba). The west side of the hill contains an area dominated by Red Cedar. I have conducted extensive diurnal and nocturnal field work at this locality.

I conducted surveys at Mosquito Hill Nature Center from 1989-1991 with bait traps and diurnal surveys. From 1992-1995 (and once in 1996) I surveyed this site at night with UV lights and bait trails, in addition to continuing to conduct diurnal surveys.

I first produced check lists of Mosquito Hill Nature Center Rhopalocera and nocturnal Macrolepidoptera in the early 1990s, but only as unpublished reports. These check lists have been continuously updated over the years and the current check list probably approaches a thorough inventory of the species I have documented in the included families, although I still have backlog material and a small number of unidentified species. In addition, some of the detailed survey data for Mosquito Hill appears in a variety of unpublished reports which have been distributed to land managers, the WI Department of Natural Resources, and various Lepidopterists. This internet site is my first paper on Mosquito Hill Lepidoptera that is more widely available, but more detailed papers are planned for future volumes of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity.

 

Methods: My surveys were conducted with UV sheets, UV traps, type P and F bait traps, bait trails, tapping (limited), and diurnal collecting with nets and jars. Follow this link for illustrations and a discussion of these survey methods. All of the species on the following list were collected during my surveys. I did not find any Mosquito Hill records in other collections I examined for additional WI records.

 

Voucher Specimens: At least one voucher specimen of each species I report from Mosquito Hill is currently housed in my personal research collection. In addition, I have made donations of Mosquito Hill Lepidoptera to the Milwaukee Public Museum. I identified or verified specimens of all of the species I list from Mosquito Hill with the exception of some Eupithecia (determined by George Balogh).

 

Classification: The classification primarily follows the Hodges et al. (1983) check list with the exception of Nymphalidae (concept of Harvey 1991) and Noctuidae, incorporating information from Poole (1995), Mitchell et al. (2006), and Zahiri et al. (2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2013). For a more detailed discussion of adopted changes in classification from the Hodges et al. (1983) check list, see the Classification section of the Kons, Borth, and Barina Check List of Wisconsin Macrolepidoptera. For those species listed in Hodges et al. (1983), I include the original check list number, which serves as a citation for the describing author and year of description.

 

Results: To date my collections have documented 794 Lepidoptera species in the included families from Mosquito Hill Nature Center, including 783 species of Macrolepidoptera. These species are listed in the check list at the end of this report.

 

Discussion: Mosquito Hill Nature Center has the longest list of documented Macrolepidoptera species among the eastern North America localities of comparable size for which I have compiled check lists or seen check lists in other publications. Generally speaking, the most important factor influencing relative differences in the lengths of documented Lepidoptera species lists between different sites is the amount of survey effort rather than differences in species diversity in nature. The only sites that I have surveyed as or more extensively than Mosquito Hill (with surveys conducted over multiple seasons and covering the full flight season when adult Lepidoptera are active) are Summer Street in Appleton (Outagamie County, Wisconsin), Fallen Timbers Environmental Center (Outagamie County, Wisconsin), the American Entomological Institute property (Alachua County, Florida) and Southwest 20th Avenue in Gainesville (Alachua County, Florida). However, Mosquito Hill Nature Center may have an especially high concentration of Macrolepidoptera species diversity due to the wide variety of habitats that occur in close proximity. The Mosquito Hill Macrolepidoptera species list contains about 57.0% of the verified species listed in the Kons, Borth, and Barina Check List of Wisconsin Macrolepidoptera, or 54.1% of WI Macrolepidoptera species if I include literature records which I have not verified.

An upcoming NAJLB Volume on Wisconsin Lepidoptera by Kons, Borth, and Barina, includes analyses and preliminary lists of Wisconsin Macrolepidoptera species hypothesized to be dependent on particular habitat types, such as barrens/dry prairie, wetlands, and hickory forest. The Mosquito Hill Macrolepidoptera fauna includes numerous species hypothesized to be habitat specialists, including sedge meadow dependent species, hydric hardwood forest dependent species, hickory forest dependent species, and some species potentially dependent on barrens or dry prairie.

Mosquito Hill contains the northernmost populations of a number of hickory forest dependent species that I have documented in eastern Wisconsin, including Catocala epione, Catocala retecta, Catocala obscura, Catocala judith, Catocala serena, Catocala habilis, Catocala palaeogama, Catocala subnata, Psaphida electilis, and Satyrium caryaevorus. It is unclear if Catocala nebulosa, Catocala piatrix, and Catocala vidua are resident species at Mosquito Hill, as these hickory forest species have been recorded only from single specimens. However, when I visited the site in 2004, I saw that nearly all of the shagbark and bitternut hickory on the south side of the hill had been cut down, so it is unknown if these species still occur at Mosquito Hill. Some smaller hickories were present on the top of the hill and in the floodplain forest.

Mosquito Hill also contains the northernmost populations of two Hackberry (Celtis) dependent species I have documented in eastern Wisconsin: Astereocampa celtis and A. clyton. Some other Celtis dependent species documented from southwest Wisconsin have never been found at Mosquito Hill, including Heterocampa subrotata and Isogona tenuis.

Some species potentially dependent on xeric barrens and/or prairies in WI are associated with the hill side/hill top barrens area (HT) and/or the prairie planting (PP) at Mosquito Hill. These species include: Erynnis brizo (HT oak openings), Erynnis lucilius (HT limestone outcroppings with columbine), Glaucospyche lygdamus (primarily HT, occasional on PP), Chlosyne gorgone (had been common on PP prior to a whole prairie burn), Cycnia inopinatus (PP), Argyrostrotis anilis (one taken in the floodplain likely originated from HT), Tarachidia binocula (HT), Pyrrhia adela (HT), Schinia lucens (HT & PP), Apamea lutosa (HT), Chytonix sensilis (HT), Hadena capsularis (PP), Ulolonche culea (HT & PP), Ulolonche modesta (HT & PP), Trichosilia geniculata (HT & PP), and Euxoa perpolita (HT, one specimen).

There are several types of wetlands at Mosquito Hill, in two areas. The Wolf River Floodplain (FP) includes hydric hardwood forest, sedge meadow openings, and emergent wetlands in Oxbow Ponds. Adjacent to the hill is a spring fed wet meadow/sedge meadow (WM). Potentially wetland dependent species recorded from Mosquito Hill, and the wetland area where they were recorded, include: Heterophleps triguttaria (FP), Carterocephalus palemon (FP & WM), Ancyloxpha numitor (FP), Poanes viator (FP), Euphyes dion (FP), Euphyes conspicua (FP), Euphyes bimacula (FP), Hyllolycaena hyllus (FP), Satyrium acadicum (FP), Clossiana selene (FP & WM), Satyrodes eurydice (FP & WM), Satyrodes appalachia (FP), Macrochilo absorptalis (FP & WM), Macrochilo bivittata (FP & WM), Phalaenostola hanhami (FP), Melanomma auricinctaria (FP), Hypenodes caducus (FP & WM), Hypenodes sombrus (FP), Ledaea perditalis (FP), Catocala crataegi (FP), Nola cilicoides (FP), Capis curvata (FP), Plusia putnami (FP & WM), Plusia contexta (FP), Plusia venusta (FP & WM), Apamea apamiformis (FP), Luperina passer (FP), Luperina stipata (FP), Eremobina jocasta (FP), Meropleon diversicolor (FP), Lemmeria digitalis (FP & WM), Chortodes inquinata (FP & WM), Chortodes defecta (FP), Archanara oblonga (FP), Archanara subflava (FP), Archanara laeta (FP), Papaipema cataphracta (FP & WM), Papaipema impecuniosa (FP & WM), Papaipema lysimachiae (FP), Papaipema inquaesita (FP), Papaipema rutila (FP), Papaipema nephleptena (FP & WM), Papaipema eupatori (FP & WM), Papaipema unimoda (FP & WM), Xanthia togata (FP & WM), Epiglaea apiata (WM), Agrotis gladiaria (FP & WM), and Coenophila opacifrons (FP & WM). The floodplain was surveyed more extensively than the wet meadow, so the observation that more species were recorded from the floodplain is almost certainly influenced by sampling bias.

Colonies of some sedge meadow dependent butterflies associated with sedge meadow openings on the floodplain were adversely impacted by flooding in 1993. Poanes viator was common in sedge meadows on the Wolf River floodplain from 1989-1992, and Euphyes dion was present there also but uncommon. This area is normally flooded in the spring, but in 1993 (an usually wet year with major flooding problems along the Mississippi) the area remained flooded into July and August and the sedge meadow community never grew. The following year the sedge meadow vegetation returned, but surveys in 1994 and 1995 did not uncover any P. viator or E. dion. In contrast, colonies of these species at Fallen Timbers (not on a river floodplain) survived, and their habitat had unusually high water but the sedge meadow vegetation appeared normal. Unfortunately, moth surveys with UV lights on the floodplain didn't occur until after 1993, so there was no historical baseline of moth data prior to this flooding event.

 

Eustrotiinae 7 July 95 MH HT

Unknown Noctuidae

 

Two very worn specimens of an unusual small Noctuid were collected on the top of the hill in UV Traps on 7 and 8 July 1995. I have never seen additional specimens in any other collection, and no other specialist I have shown them to has recognized seeing the species before. Some fresher specimens would be very useful to analyze wing pattern and DNA.

 

Acknowledgments: I thank Jim Anderson and the staff of Mosquito Hill Nature Center for their cooperation and encouragement with my Lepidoptera surveys at the nature center. The authorization they provided to collect specimens with 24 hour access to the nature center was crucial to the success of this project. I am especially grateful to my parents, Hugo & Sharon Kons Sr., for much support and tolerance for my research activities over many years. I thank my colleagues Robert Borth and Thomas Barina for their collaboration in our study of Wisconsin Lepidoptera. I give special thanks to Ken Hall of the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (retired) for his support and encouragement of my undergraduate Lepidoptera research activities. I thank the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and the American Entomological Institute for lab space and infrastructural support. I am especially appreciative of George Balogh, who examined hundreds of my WI Geometrid specimens and who was instrumental in helping me start my research collection for this family. George Balogh also determined specimens for all of the Outagamie County Eupithecia species. For assisting with the accurate identification of some Mosquito Hill specimens I also thank Douglas Ferguson and Eric Quinter. Hugo and Sharon Kons Sr. assisted with building light and bait traps, and Richard Merkhofer provided the initial design for the inverted cone platform bait trap. For facilitating access to museum collections I thank Donald Harvey, Patricia Poole, and Robert Robbins (National Museum of Natural History) and Su Borkin (Milwaukee Public Museum). Also, for assistance with acquiring chemicals important to collecting or genitalic dissections, I thank Niklaus Hostettler, Jim Lloyd, Robert Robbins, and David Wahl.

 

Check List of the Lepidoptera of Mosquito Hill Nature Center

 

Species Total for Included Families 794

 

MACROLEPIDOPTERA 783

 

DREPANOIDEA 7

 

THYATIRIDAE 3

6235 Habrosyne scripta

6236 Habrosyne gloriosa

6237 Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides

DREPANIDAE 4

Drepaninae 3

6251 Drepana arcuata

6252 Drepana bilineata

6253 Eudeilinia herminiata

Oretinae 1

6255 Oreta rosea

 

GEOMETROIDEA 145

 

GEOMETRIDAE 145

 

Ennominae 94

6261 Heliomata cycladata

6270 Proitame virginalis

6272 Eumacaria latiferrugata

6273 Itame pustularia

6274 Itame ribearia

6278 Itame evagaria

6292 Itame exhauspicata

6299 Itame coortaria

6303 Itame subcessaria

6326 Semiothisa aemulataria

6340 Semiothisa minorata

6431.1 Semiothisa masquerata

6342 Semiothisa bisignata

6347 Semiothisa pinistrobata

6348 Semiothisa fissinotata

6351 Semiothisa oweni

6362 Semiothisa continuata

6386 Semiothisa ocellinata

6397 Semiothisa mellistrigata

6405 Semiothisa gnophosaria

6570 Aethalura intertexta

6582 Iridopsis vellivolata

6583 Iridopsis ephyraria

6584 Iridopsis humaria

6588 Iridopsis larvaria

6590 Anavitrinelia pampinaria

6597 Ectropis crepuscularia

6598 Protoboarmia porcelaria

6620 Melanolophia canadaria

6621 Melanolophia signataria

6640 Biston betularia

6651 Lycia ursaria

6654 Hypagyrtis unipunctata

6656 Hypagyrtis piniata

6658 Phigalia titea

6660 Phigalia strigitaria

6662 Paleacrita vernata

6663 Paleacrita merriccata

6665 Erannis tiliaria

6666 Lomographa semiclarata

6667 Lomographa vestaliata

6668 Lomographa glomeraria

6677 Cabera erythemaria

6678 Cabera variolaria

6720 Lytrosis unitaria

6724 Euchlaena serrata

6726 Euchlaena obtusaria

6728 Euchlaena effecta

6729 Euchlaena johnsonaria

6734 Euchlaena marginaria

6739 Euchlaena irraria

6740 Xanthotype urticaria

6743 Xanthotype sospeta

6753 Pero honestaria

6754 Pero hubneraria

6755 Pero morrisonaria

6763 Nacophora quernaria

6796 Campaea perlata

6797 Ennomos magnaria

6798 Ennomos subsignaria

6804 Petrophora subaequaria

6807 Tacparia detersata

6812 Homochlodes fritillaria

6819 Metanema inatomaria

6820 Metanema determiniata

6822 Metarranthis duaria

6823 Metarranthis angularia

6825 Metarranthis indeclinata

6826 Metarranthis hypochraria

6827 Metarranthis refractaria

6835 Cepphis armataria

6836 Anagoga pulveraria occiduaria

6837 Probole alienaria

6839.1 Probole nyssaria

6840 Plagodis serinaria

6842 Plagodis phlogosaria

6843 Plagodis fervidaria

6844 Plagodis alcoolaria

6863 Caripeta divisata

6864 Caripeta piniata

6867 Caripeta angustiorata

6884 Besma endropiaria

6885 Besma quercivoraria

6888 Lambdina fiscellaria

6894 Lambdina fervidaria

6906 Nepytia canosaria

6912 Sicya macularia

6941 Eusarca confusaria

6963 Tetracis crocallata

6964 Tetracis cachexiata

6965 Eugonobapta nivosaria

6966 Eutrapela clemataria

6982 Prochoerodes lineola

7009 Nematocampa resistaria

 

Geometrinae 3

7048 Nemoria mimosaria

7058 Synchlora aerata

7071 Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria

 

Sterrhinae 7

7114 Idaea demissaria

7132 Pleuroprucha insulsaria

7139 Cyclophora pendulinaria

7146 Haematopis grataria

7159 Scopula limboundata

7164 Scopula junctaria

7169 Scopula inductata

 

Larentiinae 41

7189 Dysstroma hersiliata

7196 Eulithis diversilineata

7197 Eulithis gracilineata

7201 Eulithis testata

7205 Eulithis flavibrunneata

7206 Eulithis explanata

7229 Hydriomena perfracta

7236 Hydriomena renunciata

7237 Hydriomena transfigurata

7254 Hydriomena ruberata

7285 Triphosa haesitata

7290 Coryphista meadii

7292 Hydria prunivorata

7307 Mesoleuca ruficillata

7230 Anticlea multiferata

7368 Xanthorhoe labradorensis

7388 Xanthorhoe ferrugata

7390 Xanthorhoe lacustrata

7394 Epirrhoe alternata

7399 Euphyia intermediata

7414 Orthonama obstipata

7416 Orthonama centrostrigaria

7419 Hydrelia lucata

7423 Hydrelia albifera

7428 Venusia comptaria

7430 Trichodezia albovittata

7437 Operophtera bruceata

7440 Eubaphe mendica

7445 Horisme intestinata

7449 Eupithecia palpata

7474 Eupithecia miserulata

7518 Eupithecia intricata

7529 Eupithecia absinthiata

7530 Eupithecia swettii

7605 Eupithecia ravocostaliata

7637 Cladara limitaria

7639 Cladara atroliturata

7640 Lobophora nivigerata

7645 Heterophleps refusaria

7647 Heterophleps triguttaria

7648 Dyspteris abortivaria

 

RHOPALOCERA 67

 

HESPERIIDAE 20

 

Pyrginae 6

3870 Epargyreus clarus

3910 Thorybes pylades

3946 Erynnis brizo

3947 Erynnis juvenalis

3958 Erynnis lucilius

3977 Pholisora catullus

 

Heteropterinae 1

3982 Carterocephalus palemon

 

Hesperiinae 13

4004 Ancyloxpha numitor

4036 Polites coras

4041 Polites themistocles

4047 Wallengrenia egeremet

4048 Pompeius verna

4051 Atrytone logan

4059 Poanes hobomok

4064 Poanes viator

4072 Euphyes dion

4075 Euphyes conspicua

4077 Euphyes bimacula

4078 Euphyes vestris

4096 Amblyscirtes hegon

 

PAPILIONOIDEA 47

 

PAPLIONIDAE 2

4159 Papilio polyxenus

4176 Papilio glaucus

 

PIERIDAE 4

4197 Pieris rapae

4209 Colias philodice

4210 Colias eurytheme

4237 Eurema lisa

 

LYCAENIDAE 11

4249 Feniseca tarquinius

4251 Lycaena phlaeas

4256 Hyllolycaena hyllus

4285 Satyrium liparops

4282 Satyrium calanus

4281 Satyrium edwardsii

4283 Satyrium caryaevorum

4278 Satyrium acadicum

4361 Everes comyntas

4363 Celastrina ladon [complex]

4372 Glaucopsyche lygdamus

NYMPHALIDAE 30

4411 Libytheana carinenta

4420 Polygonia interrogationis

4421 Polygonia comma

4429 Polygonia progne

4430 Nymphalis vau-album

4432 Nymphalis antiopa

4433 Aglais milberti

4434 Vanessa virginiensis

4435 Vanessa cardui

4437 Vanessa atlanta

4440 Junonia coenia

4447 Euptoieta claudia

4450 Speyeria cybele

4451 Speyeria aphrodite

4464 Clossiana selene

4465 Clossiana bellona

4481 Phyciodes tharos

4481.1 Phyciodes pascoensis

4489 Chlosyne gorgone

4490 Chlosyne nycteis

4522 Basilarchia arthemis

4523 Basilarchia archippus

4557 Astereocampa celtis

4562.1 Astereocampa clyton

4568.1 Enodia anthedon

4568.3 Satyrodes eurydice

4569 Satyrodes appalachia

4578 Megisto cymela

4587 Cercyonis pegala

4614 Danaus plexippus

 

LASIOCAMPOIDEA 5

 

LASIOCAMPIDAE 5

Macromphaliinae 2

7670 Tolype velleda

7673 Tolype laricis

Gastropachinae 1

7687 Phyllodesma americana

Lasiocampinae 2

7698 Malacosoma disstria

7701 Malacosoma americanum

 

BOMBYCOIDEA 25

 

SATURNIIDAE 5

Citheroniinae 1

7715 Dryocampa rubicunda

Hemileucinae 1

7746 Automeris io

Saturniinae 3

7757 Antheraea polyphemus

7758 Actias luna

7767 Hyalophora cecropia

 

SPHINGIDAE 20

 

Sphinginae 11

7775 Manduca sexta

7787 Ceratomia undulosa

7809 Sphinx kalmiae

7810 Sphinx gordius (incl. poecile)

7817 Lapara bombycoides

7821 Smerinthus jamaicensis

7822 Smerinthus cerisyi

7824 Paonias excaecatus

7825 Paonias myops

7827 Lathoe juglandis

7828 Pachysphinx modesta

 

Macroglossinae 9

7853 Hemaris thysbe

7855 Hemaris diffinis

7859 Eumorpha pandorus

7870 Sphecodina abbottii

7871 Deidamia inscripta

7873 Amphion floridensis

7885 Darapsa myron

7886 Darapsa pholus

7894 Hyles lineata

 

NOCTUOIDEA 533

 

NOTODONTIDAE 39

7895 Clostera albosigma

7898 Clostera strigosa

7901 Clostera apicalis

7902 Datana ministra

7903 Datana angusii

7906 Datana contractata

7907 Datana integerrima

7908 Datana perspicua

7915 Nadata gibbosa

7917 Hyperaeschra georgica

7919 Peridea basitriens

7920 Peridea angulosa

7921 Peridea ferruginea

7922 Pheosia rimosa

7924 Odontosia elegans

7928 Notodonta simplaria

7929 Nerice bidentata

7930 Ellida caniplaga

7931 Gluphisia septentrionis

7933 Gluphisia avimacula

7934 Gluphisia lintneri

7936 Furcula borealis

7937 Furcula cinerea

7939 Furcula occidentalis

7941 Furcula modesta

7952 Symmerista canicosta

7953 Symmerista leucitys

7957 Dasylophia anguina

7975 Macrurocampa marthesia

7983 Heterocampa obliqua

7994 Heterocampa guttivitta

7995 Heterocampa biundata

7998 Lochmaeus manteo

7999 Lochmaeus bilineata

8005 Schizura ipomoeae

8007 Schizura unicornis

8011 Schizura leptinoides

8012 Oligocentria semirufescens

8017 Oligocentria lignicolor

 

NOCTUIDAE 495

 

Herminiinae 37

8322 Idia americalis

8323 Idia aemula

8323.1 Idia concisa

8321.2 Idia herminioides

8324 Idia majoralis

8326 Idia rotundalis

8327 Idia forbesi

8328 Idia julia

8329 Idia diminuendis

8334 Idia lubricalis

8338 Phalaenophana pyramusalis

8340 Zanclognatha lituralis

8345 Zanclognatha laevigata

8348 Zanclognatha pedipilalis cpx. A

8349 Zanclognatha protumnusalis

8349.1 Zanclognatha dentata (=nr. protumnusalis of previous versions)

8351 Zanclognatha cruralis cpx. sp A

8352 Zanclognatha marcidilinea (formerly jacchusalis)

8353 Zanclognatha ochreipennis

8355 Chytolita morbidalis

8356 Chytolita petrealis

8357 Macrochilo absorptalis

8357.1 Macrochilo hypocritialis Fgn.

8358 Macrochilo litophora

8359 Macrochilo bivittata

8360 Macrochilo orciferalis

8361 Macrochilo louisiana

8362 Phalaenostola metonalis

8363 Phalaenostola eumelusalis

8364 Phalaenostola larentioides

8365 Phalaenostola hanhami

8370 Bleptina caradrinalis

8379 Renia factiosalis

8384.1 Renia flavipunctalis

8387 Renia sobrialis

8393 Lascoria ambigualis

8397 Palthis angulalis

Rivulinae 1

8404 Rivula propinqualis

 

Subfamilly Unknown 1

8412 Melanomma auricinctaria

Hypenodinae 3

8420 Hypenodes caducus

Hypenodes fractilinea [complex]

8423 Hypenodes sombrus

Subfamily Unknown 1

8426 Dyspyralis illocata

 

Hypeninae 13

8441 Hypena manalis

8442 Hypena baltimoralis

8443 Hypena bijugalis

8444 Hypena palparia

8445 Hypena abalienalis

8446 Hypena deceptalis

8447 Hypena madefactalis

8448 Hypena sordidula

8450 Hypena atomaria

8452 Hypena edictalis

8455 Hypena eductalis

8461 Hypena humuli

8465 Hypena scabra

 

Subfamily Unknown 1

8479 Spargaloma sexpunctata

Pangraptinae 2

8490 Pangrapta decoralis

8491 Ledaea perditalis

 

Boletobiinae 2

8499 Metalectra discalis

8500 Metalectra quadrisignata

 

Calpinae 1

8536 Calyptra canadensis

 

Scoliopteryginae 1

8555 Scoliopteryx libatrix

 

Eulepidotinae 2

8587 Panopoda rufimargo

8588 Panopoda carneicosta

 

Erebinae (=Catocalinae) 57

8591 Phoberia atomaris

8592 Cissusa spadix

8641 Drasteria grandirena

8651 Lesmone detrahens

8689 Zale lunata

8692 Zale galbanata

8695 Zale undularis

8697 Zale minerea

8698 Zale phaeocapna

8699 Zale obliqua

8702a Zale submediana sp. 1

8703 Zale duplicata

8704 Zale helata

8713.1 Zale intenta (formerly lunifera)

8716 Zale unilineata

8717 Zale horrida

8719 Euparthenos nubilis

8727 Parallelia bistriaris

8731 Euclidia cuspidea

8738 Caenurgina crassiuscula

8739 Caenurgina erechtea

8745 Mocis texana

8764 Argyrostrotis anilis

8770 Catocala innubens

8771 Catocala piatrix

8773 Catocala epione

8778 Catocala habilis

8779 Catocala serena

8781 Catocala judith

8784 Catocala obscura

8788 Catocala retecta

8792 Catocala vidua

8795 Catocala palaeogama

8796 Catocala nebulosa

8797 Catocala subnata

8798 Catocala neogama

Catocala communis

8801 Catocala ilia

8802 Catocala cerogama

8803 Catocala relicta

8805 Catocala unijuga

8806 Catocala parta

8817 Catocala briseis

8822 Catocala meskei

8832 Catocala cara

8833 Catocala concumbens

8834 Catocala amatrix

8851 Catocala coccinata

8857 Catocala ultronia

8858 Catocala crataegi

8863 Catocala mira

8864 Catocala grynea

8867 Catocala blandula

8873 Catocala similis

8876 Catocala micronympha

8878 Catocala amica

8878.1 Catocala lineella

 

Arctiinae 27

8045.1 Crambidia pallida

8090 Hypoprepia fucosa

8098 Clemensia albata

8109 Haploa reversa

8111 Haploa lecontei

8112 Haploa confusa

8818 Holomelina opella

8121 Holomelina aurantiaca

8123 Holomelina ferruginosa

8129 Pyrrharctia isabella

8131 Estigmene acrea

8134 Spilosoma congrua

8137 Spilosoma virginica

8140 Hyphantria cunea

8156 Phragmatobia fuliginosa

8171 Apantesis nais

8175 Grammia virguncula

8196 Grammia parthenice

8197 Grammia virgo

8199 Grammia arge

8203 Halysidota tessellaris

8228 Cycnia inopinatus

8230 Cycnia tenera

8231 Cycnia oregonensis

8238 Euchaetes egle

8262 Ctenucha virginica

8267 Cisseps fulvicollis

Lymantriinae 4

8293 Dasychira dorsipennata

8294 Dasychira vagans

8314 Orgyia definita

8316 Orgyia leucostigma

Euteliinae 3

8955 Marathyssa inficita

8956 Marathyssa basalis

8957 Paectes oculatrix

 

Sarrothripinae 4

8969 Baileya doubledayi

8970 Baileya ophthalmica

8971 Baileya dormitans

8972 Baileya levitans

 

Chloephorinae 2

8974 Characoma nilotica

8975 Nycteola frigidana

Nolinae 6

8983 Meganola miniscula

8983.1 Meganola phylla

8990 Nola cilicoides

8992 Nola triquetrana

8995 Nola ovilla

Nola species

 

Bagisarinae 1

9070 Amyna octo

 

Subfamily Unknown 2

9038 Hyperstrotia villificans

9040 Hyperstrotia secta

 

Eustrotiinae 7

9047 Lithacodia muscosula

9048 Lithacodia albidula

9049 Maliattha synochitis

9053 Pseudostrotia carneola

9284 Anterastria teratophora

9059 Capis curvata

Eustrotiinae? sp. (undescribed?)

Condicinae 7

9690 Condica videns

9696 Condica vecors

9720 Ogdoconta cinereola

9057 Homophoberia apicosa

9065 Leuconycta diphteroides

9066 Leuconycta lepidula

9661 Crambodes talidiformis

Plusiinae 18

8880 Abrostola ovalis

8881 Abrostola urentis

8887 Trichoplusia ni

8889 Ctenoplusia oxygramma

8890 Pseudoplusia includens

8895 Rachiplusia ou

8896 Diachrysia aeroides

8897 Diachrysia balluca

8898 Allagrapha aerea

8899 Pseudeva purpurigera

8905 Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides

8907 Megalographa biloba

8908 Autographa precationis

8924 Anagrapha falcifera

8950 Plusia putnami

Plusia magnimacula

8952 Plusia contexta

8953 Plusia venusta

 

Acontiinae 5

9085 Tarachidia semiflava

9089 Tarachidia binocula

9090 Tarachidia candefacta

9095 Tarachidia erastrioides

9145 Acontia terminimaculata

Amphipyrinae 4

9638 Amphipyra pyramidoides

9639 Amphipyra tragopoginis

9640 Amphipyra glabella

 

Eriopinae 2

9631 Callopistria mollissima

9633 Callopistria cordata

 

Psaphidinae 5

10012 Psaphida electilis

10014 Psaphida rolandi

10016 Psaphida styracis

10019 Psaphida resumens

10021 Copivaleria grotei

 

Heliothinae 6

11063 Pyrrhia adela Laf. & Mikkola

11068 Helicoverpa zea

11072 Heliothis phloxiphagus

11128 Schinia arcigera

11135 Schinia rivulosa

11174 Schinia lucens

 

Agaristinae 3

9299 Eudryas unio

9301 Eudryas grata

9314 Alypia octomaculata

 

Pantheinae 5

9177 Panthea acronyctoides

9182 Panthea furcilla

9184 Colocasia flavicornis

9185 Colocasia propinquilinea

9189 Charadra deridens

 

Raphiinae 1

9193 Raphia frater

 

Acronictinae 31

9062 Cerma cerintha

9200 Acronicta americana

9203 Acronicta dactylina

9205 Acronicta lepusculina

9206 Acronicta leporina

9207 Acronicta innotata

9209 Acronicta radcliffei

9212 Acronicta grisea

9219 Acronicta connecta

9221 Acronicta funeralis

9225 Acronicta vinnula

9226 Acronicta superans

9227 Acronicta laetifica

9229 Acronicta hasta

9235 Acronicta spinigera

9236 Acronicta morula

9237 Acronicta interrupta

9238 Acronicta lobeliae

9242 Acronicta exilis

9243 Acronicta ovata

9244 Acronicta modica

9245 Acronicta haesitata

9247 Acronicta tristis

9250 Acronicta inclara

9251 Acronicta retardata

9257 Acronicta impleta

9261 Acronicta impressa

9272 Acronicta oblinata

9280 Simyra henrici sp. B

9281 Agriopodes fallax

9286 Harrisimemna trisignata

Cucullinae 2

10194 Cucullia intermedia

10200 Cucullia asteroides

 

Noctuinae 227

9619 Phosphila miselioides

9326 Apamea verbascoides

9329 Apamea cariosa

9333 Apamea lignicolora

9343 Apamea apamiformis

9348 Apamea amputatrix

9351 Apamea alia

9364 Apamea sordens

9367 Apamea dubitans

9372 Apamea lutosa

9373 Apamea helva

9382 Apamea devastator

9391 Luperina passer

9393 Luperina stipata

9398 Eremobina jocasta

9404 Oligia modica

9406 Oligia fractilinea

9408 Oligia exhausta

9413 Oligia tonsa

9419 Oligia mactata

9427 Meropleon diversicolor

9428 Meropleon ambifusca

9429 Lemmeria digitalis

9431 Parastichtis suspecta

9433 Xylomoia chagnoni

9435 Spartiniphaga inops

9437 Chortodes inquinata

9443 Chortodes defecta

9449 Archanara oblonga

9450 Archanara subflava

9451 Archanara laeta

9453 Celaena reniformis

9454 Amphipoea velata

9456 Amphipoea interoceanica

9457 Amphipoea americana

9464 Papaipema cerina

9466 Papaipema cataphracta

9471 Papaipema arctivorens

9473 Papaipema impecuniosa

9478 Papaipema leucostigma

9479 Papaipema lysimachiae

9483 Papaipema inquaesita

9484 Papaipema rutila

9486 Papaipema birdi

9490 Papaipema nepheleptena

9495 Papaipema furcata

9496 Papaipema nebris

9497 Papaipema necopina

9500 Papaipema maritima

9501 Papaipema eupatori

9509 Papaipema unimoda

9513 Hydraecia immanis

9514 Hydraecia micacea

9545 Euplexia benesimilis

9546 Phlogophora iris

9547 Phlogophora periculosa

9549 Enargia decolor

9550 Enargia infumata

9551 Enargia mephisto

9555 Ipimorpha pleonectusa

9556 Chytonix palliatricula

9557 Chytonix sensilis complex sp. 1

9560 Dypterygia rozmani

9578 Hyppa xylinoides

9582 Nedra ramosula

9626 Trachea delicata

9647 Athetis miranda

9649 Athetis mendosa

9662 Balsa malana

9663 Balsa tristrigella

9664 Balsa labecula

9666 Spodoptera frugiperda

9669 Spodoptera ornithogalli

9678 Elaphria versicolor

9680 Elaphria georgei

9681 Elaphria festivoides

9684 Elaphria grata

9688 Galgula partita

9815 Cosmia calami

9818 Amolita fessa

9874 Xylena curvimacula

9878 Lithomoia germana

9881 Homoglaea hiricina

9885 Lithophane semiusta

9886 Lithophane patefacta

9887 Lithophane bethunei

9888 Lithophane innominata

9889 Lithophane petulca

9891 Lithophane amanda

9892 Lithophane disposita

9893 Lithophane hemina

9910 Lithophane antennata

9914 Lithophane laticinerea

9915 Lithophane grotei

9916 Lithophane unimoda

9917 Lithophane fagina

9922 Lithophane pexata

9929 Pyreferra hesperidago

9930 Pyreferra citromba

9932 Pyreferra pettiti

9933 Eupsilia vinulenta

9933.1 Eupsilia sidus

9935 Eupsilia tristigmata

9936 Eupsilia morrisoni

9939 Eupsilia devia

9942 Metaxaglaea inulta

9947 Epiglaea apiata

9950 Chaetaglaea sericea

9952 Eucirroedia pampina

9957 Sunira bicolorago

9961 Anathix ralla

9962 Anathix puta

9963 Anathix aggressa

9965 Xanthia togata

9998 Brachylomia algens

10055 Apharetra dentata

10059 Homohadena badistriga

10067 Adita chionanthi

10223 Discestra trifolii

10265 Sideridis rosea

10272 Mamestra curialis

10275 Polia nimbosa

10276 Polia imbrifera

10280 Polia purpurissata

10288 Polia detracta

10292 Melanchra adjuncta

10293 Melanchra picta

10295 Melanchra assimilis

10297 Lacanobia atlantica

10299 Lacanobia subjuncta

10300 Spirameter grandis

10301 Spirameter lutra

10304 Trichordestra legitima

10317 Hadena capsularis

10368 Lacinipolia meditata

10370 Lacinipolia lustralis

10372 Lacinipolia anguina

10397 Lacinipolia renigera

10405 Lacinipolia lorea

10406 Lacinipolia olivacea

10431 Faronta diffusa

10436 Aletia oxygala

10438 Pseudaletia unipuncta

10444 Leucania phragmatidicola

10445 Leucania linda

10446 Leucania multilinea

10446.1 Leucania lapidaria

10447 Leucania commoides

10449 Leucania insueta

10459 Leucania inermis

10462 Leucania pseudargyria

10487 Orthosia rubescens

10488 Orthosia garmani

10490 Orthosia revicta

10491 Orthosia alurina

10495 Orthosia hibisci

10501 Crocigrapha normani

10513 Egira dolosa

10518 Achatia distincta

10520 Morrisonia evicta

10521 Morrisonia confusa

10291 Morrisonia latex

10524 Nephelodes minians

10532 Homorthodes furfurata

10563 Protorthodes oviduca

10567 Ulolonche culea

10569 Ulolonche modesta

10578 Pseudorthodes vecors

10585 Orthodes crenulata

10289 Orthodes goodelli

10597 Orthodes cynica

10627 Tricholita signata

10648 Agrotis gladiaria

10651 Agrotis venerabilis

10659 Agrotis volubilis

10663 Agrotis ipsilon

10664 Agrotis subterranea

10670 Feltia jaculifera

10674 Feltia subgothica

10675 Feltia tricosa

10676 Feltia herilis

10680 Trichosilia geniculata

10705 Euxoa messoria

10755 Euxoa declarata

10793 Euxoa scholastica

10803 Euxoa velleripennis

10805 Euxoa tessellata

10807 Euxoa albipennis

10838 Euxoa detersa

10851 Euxoa redimicula

10854 Euxoa servita

10865 Euxoa perpolita

10902 Euagrotis forbesi

10903 Euagrotis illapsa

10911 Anicla infecta

10915 Peridroma saucia

10891 Ochropleura implecta

10917 Diarsia rubifera

10919 Diarsia jucunda

10926 Spaelotis clandestina

10928 Graphiphora augur

10929 Eurois occulta

10942 Xestia c-nigrum

10942.1 Xestia dolosa

10943 Xestia normaniana

10944 Xestia smithii

10968 Xestia badicollis

10969 Xestia dilucida

10988 Coenophila opacifrons

10955 Agnorisma badinodis

10954 Agnorisma bugrai

10950 Pseudohermonassa bicarnea

10951 Pseudohermonassa tenuicula

10994 Cerastis tenebrifera

10996 Cerastis salicarum

11000 Anaplectoides prasina

11001 Anaplectoides pressus

11006 Protolampra brunneicollis

11007 Eueretagrotis sigmoides

11008 Eueretagrotis perattenta

11009 Eueretagrotis attenta

11010 Lycophota phyllophora

11012 Cryptocala acadiensis

11029 Abagrotis alternata

11043 Abagrotis cupida

11044 Abagrotis brunneipennis

11045 Abagrotis anchocelioides

Undet. Noctuinae

 

Some Other Lepidoptera Families

 

COSSIDAE 2

2693 Prionoxystus robiniae

2676 Acossus populi

ATTEVIDAE 1

2401 Atteva punctella

ZYGAENOIDEA 8

ZYGAENIDAE 1

4624 Harrisina americana

LIMACODIDAE 7

4652 Tortricidia testacea

4653 Tortricidia pallida

4659 Packardia geminata

4665 Lithacodes fasciola

4667 Apoda y-inversum

4668 Apoda biguttata

4697 Euclea delphini

 

References Cited

 

Harvey, Donald J. 1991. Higher Classification of the Nymphalidae. Appendix B in The Development and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns by H. F. Nijhout. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hodges, Ronald W. et. al. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. Great Britian, University Press, Cambridge. 284 pp.

Mitchell, Andrew, Charles Mitter, and Jerome C. Regier. 2006. Systematics and evolution of the cutworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): evidence from two protein-coding nuclear genes. Systematic Entomology, 31: 21-46.

Poole, Robert W. 1995. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (part) in Dominick, R. B. et al., The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 26.1.

Zahiri, Reza, Ian J. Kitching, J. Donald Lafontaine, Marko Mutanen, Lauri Kaila, Jeremy Holloway & Niklas Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuouidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta.

Zahiri, Reza, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, J. Donald Lafontaine, Marko Mutanen, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2012a. Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea). Systematic Entomology, 37: 102-124.

Zahiri, Reza, J. Donald Lafontaine, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, B. Christian Schmidt, Lauri Kaila, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2012b. Major lineages of Nolidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) elucidated by molecular phylogenetics. Cladistics 1 (2012): 1-23.

Zahiri, Reza, J. Donald Lafontaine, Christian Schmidt, Jeremy Holloway, Ian J. Kitching, Marko Mutanen, & Niklas Wahlberg. 2013. Relationships among the basal lineages of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) based on eight gene regions. Zoologica Scripta.