The North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity©


North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC Home Page



Editor: Hugo L. Kons Jr.



1. Purpose

2. Volumes available on-line as pdfs

2. Price List

3. Ordering Information

4. Subscription

5. Abstracts

6. Species Lists Published in NAJLB

7. Upcoming Volumes


Purpose:  We have established the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity to provide an outlet for the publication of monograph-sized papers or collections of papers presenting data and analyses on Lepidoptera biodiversity inventories and related topics, such as Lepidoptera habitat requirements, phenology, distribution, and relationships to the natural environment.  For this journal, we adopt a scientific standard of corroborating reported records with representative voucher specimens and authoritative determinations. 

            There has never been a greater need than at the present to understand the diversity and composition of the Lepidoptera faunas of different localities and habitats.  Natural ecosystems are threatened by human population expansion, economic development, climate change, plant community succession, disruption of natural processes, invasive exotic species, chemical contamination, and other anthropogenic threats.  The United Nation’s 1995 biodiversity assessment stated: “For a nation, knowing the identity and geographic distribution of its species is perhaps the most important information available in its attempt to preserve and use its biodiversity.”  Yet, with few exceptions (such as Texas), to our knowledge little has been formally published on Lepidoptera/insect biodiversity inventories of specific localities in North America.  This constitutes a massive limitation to conservation efforts, as Lepidoptera comprise about 15% of described insect species, which in turn comprise about 75% of animal species diversity.  To evaluate if an ecosystem is being preserved in the future, one must have a base line of data on the species which occur there.  Very few lands managed for conservation purposes have nearly complete Lepidoptera inventories, and many, perhaps most, have none at all.  Management practices on conservation lands often must proceed with little or no knowledge of how they impact the majority of animal species present.  Limited funds for purchasing lands for conservation management often must be expended with little knowledge of the diversity and composition of the majority of the fauna present at prospective sites.  With the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity we aspire to substantially increase the amount of Lepidoptera inventory data which is formally published for sites in North America.






Kons, Hugo L. Jr. and Robert J. Borth.  2006.  Contributions to a study of the diversity, distribution, habitat association, and phenology of the Lepidoptera of Northern Florida.  North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity.  Volume I: 1-231.


Download Volume I pdf






Kons, Hugo L. Jr. and Robert J. Borth.  2006.  Contributions to a study of the diversity, distribution, habitat association, and phenology of the Lepidoptera of       Northern Florida.  North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity.  Volume I: 1-231.


Price: $30.00


            Domestic: $5.00

            Foreign: Variable (Contact Us)




Make checks payable to the North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC.  Mail checks with orders to Robert J. Borth, 8220 N Poplar Drive, Milwaukee, WI 53217.  To request a pro forma, contact Hugo Kons Jr. at


Please Note: 

            Journals will be shipped ONLY after receipt of payment.

            Refunds are not available.

            Mailed in payments must be made by check in U.S. dollars.  We do not accept credit            cards. 




The NAJLB will be published at irregular intervals, and the price of individual volumes will vary based on length.  Consequently, we will not accept funds for regular subscriptions, but rather offer each volume as an item which can be purchased individually when it becomes available.  We will maintain an e-mail list of persons interested in being notified and receiving a copy of the abstract when a new volume becomes available.  Those wishing to be placed on this list should contact Hugo Kons Jr. at  Placement on this list incurrs no obligation to purchase any future volumes. 




Vol I

Kons, Hugo L. Jr. and Robert J. Borth.  2006.  Contributions to a study of the diversity, distribution, habitat association, and phenology of the Lepidoptera of       Northern Florida.  North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity.  Volume I: 1-231.


ABSTRACT:  We report data on the distribution, habitat association, and phenology of Lepidoptera collected during surveys in northern Florida from the fall of 1996 to the present.  Families covered include all Macrolepidoptera families (Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae), in addition to the families: Psychidae (part), Yponomeutidae, Attevidae, Urodidae, Cossidae, Lacturidae, Zygaenidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Epipyropidae, and Thyrididae.  Results are based on over 74,000 computerized unique Lepidoptera specimen records (not counting multiple specimens of one species with identical data), plus additional specimen data recorded in charts or notebooks.  Over 49,000 of these records are from nearly year round surveys at the best studied site (the American Entomological Institute (AEI) property-a mesic hardwood-pine forest) between 2001 and 2004.  Species lists are presented for 25 north Florida localities where 120 or more Macrolepidoptera species have been recorded, with the longest Macrolepidoptera species list compiled to date at 641 Macrolepidoptera species for the AEI property.  Shorter lists are presented for 22 additional more poorly studied localities.  Overall, we recorded 982 Macrolepidoptera species from all localities combined, and we have examined 46 additional species, not encountered on our surveys, in other collections.  We also include a list of additional species reported from northern Florida in the literature, and a discussion of the likelihood of the authenticity of these records. 

            Habitat types represented among our survey sites include mesic hardwood-pine forest, hydric hardwood forest, coastal hydric pine-palm-juniper forest, steephead ravines, cypress swamp, herb bog, xeric oak-pine forest, pine-palmetto flatwoods, turkey oak-Long Leaf Pine sandhill scrub, pine plantation, salt marsh, freshwater sedge marsh, shrubby wetland, low grassy wetland, and field.  Habitat data is presented and analyzed to provide preliminary hypotheses as to which species are dependent on particular habitat types and which species are habitat generalists.  Of the species recorded from our surveys, approximately 50.0% are hypothesized to be generalists, 25.6% may be dependent on a particular habitat type, 20.2% have too little associated habitat data to hypothesize habitat dependency, and 2.3% are probable strays.  However, the proportion of generalists recorded from individual sites ranged from 68.5% to 95.0% of the recorded species, with a mean value of 82.7%.  For all sites combined 9.7 % of the recorded species are hypothesized to be hardwood forest dependent, 7.3% xeric oak-pine habitat dependent, and 8.9% wetland dependent.  Percentages of species which are candidates for dependency on more specialized habitat types include: 2.6% for mesic hardwood forest, 1.5% for hydric hardwood forest, 0.8% for Arundinaria habitats, 4.9% for xeric oak-pine scrub, 1.2% for cypress habitats, 1.1% for salt marsh, 0.6% for herb bog, and 0.9% for other specialized habitats.            

            Phenology data is presented for each species recorded from our surveys, including 21,480 species-sixth of month data points.  In addition, we provide charts of recorded and extrapolated seasonal patterns of adult Macrolepidoptera species diversity.  Analysis of the complete data set indicates the greatest diversity of adult Macrolepidoptera species occurs during May.  Furthermore, maximum species diversities have been recorded during May for the following classes of Macrolepidoptera taxa: multivoltine resident species, habitat generalists, hardwood forest dependent species, and wetland dependent species.  However, data obtained thus far suggests late March/early April and late September/early October may have the highest adult species diversities of xeric oak-pine scrub dependent species.  We present data and analyses supporting recommendations as to what times of year are most important for conducting Lepidoptera surveys in particular habitat types.  We also present data and analyses on the relative and combined effectiveness of different survey methods for documenting adult Macrolepidoptera species diversity.  




The following list includes localities for which Lepidoptera species lists have been published in the NAJLB.  Localities are organized alphabetically by state, then by county, and then by locality.  The right column includes the number of species published for a site and the NAJLB volume where the list has been published.  Many minor localities where lists of fewer than 100 species have been published are not included on the below list.  Species lists published by the NAJLB to date are primarily comprised of Macrolepidoptera, including: Geometroidea, Drepanoidea, Rhopalocera, Bombycoidea, and Noctuoidea. 




Northern Florida, south to the latitude of the Withlacoochee State Forest:       (1028 Macrolepidoptera species, Vol. I)


Alachua County


American Entomological Institute Property:                 (673, Vol. I)

Austin Cary Memorial Forest:                                      (429, Vol. I)

Hawthorn:                                                                    (207, Vol. I)

Owens Illinois Park:                                                     (84, Vol. I)

Southwest 20th Avenue (Gainesville):                          (619, Vol. I)

University of Florida Natural Area Teaching Lab:       (598, Vol. I)


Baker County


Pinhook Swamp:                                                          (77, Vol. I)


Citrus County


Withlacoochee State Forest, Road M11 and vicinity:   (240, Vol. I)


Dixie County


Highway 361 salt marshes:                                          (435, Vol. I)

Highway 361 sandhills:                                                           (212, Vol. I)

Highway 358 south section:                                         (193, Vol. I)


Gadsden County


Aspalaga Road:                                                                        (616, Vol. I)

Clyde T. Hopkins Municipal Park:                               (167, Vol. I)

Dolan Road:                                                                (282, Vol. I)

Southwest corner of Hwy 10 X Hwy 269:                   (278, Vol. I)


Gilchrist County


Santa Fe River Park:                                                    (70, Vol. I)


Hernando County


Withlacoochee State Forest: Mckeethan Lake Park:     (163, Vol. I)


Jackson County


Buena Vista Road:                                                       (418, Vol. I)


Levy County


A turkey oak scrub                                                      (266, Vol. I)


Liberty County


Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve:                 (415, Vol. I)

Apalachicola National Forest: Road 111:                     (293, Vol. I)

Apalachicola National Forest: Hickory Branc & Vic.: (135, Vol. I)

Apalachicola National Forest: Indian Branch & Vic.:  (54, Vol. I)

Apalachicola National Forest: Revell Branch & Vic.: (75, Vol. I)


Marion County


Saddle Drive:                                                               (290, Vol. I)


Okaloosa County


Blackwater River St. Forest: Road W20:                                  (163, Vol. I)


Osceola County


Deseret Ranch:                                                                        (123, Vol. I)


Putnam County


Katharine Ordway Preserve:                                        (491, Vol. I)


Santa Rosa County


Blackwater River St. Forest: N of Kennedy Bridge Rd.:          (147, Vol. I)


Sumter County


Withlacoochee State Forest: Bear Island:                     (123, Vol. I)



Upcoming Volumes of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity


            We plan to produce a number of additional volumes of this journal over the next several years, and the following provides a brief description of some of the upcoming volumes.  The taxonomic scope of all of these volumes is similar to Volume I, including all Macrolepidoptera plus some “microlepidoptera” families.  While this list is not comprehensive for all of the volumes that will be needed to present the data and analyses we have available, these are the volumes where we have already produced drafts of a substantial portion of the intended content.  


A Summary of Some Results for the First Four years of an Ongoing Lepidoptera Study of the American Entomological Institute Property in Gainesville, Florida

Author: Hugo L. Kons Jr.

This paper will present four years of Lepidoptera phenology data (presented as the number of nights a species was recorded during sixth of month intervals) obtained at a mesic hardwood-pine forest on former agricultural land from 2001 to 2004.  Survey data was obtained nearly year round, excluding late December through mid January, and excluding 3-6 weeks per year when other field work was conducted from 2002-2004.  The survey data was used to derive hypotheses as to which species are residents, dispersers, annual and ephemeral migrants, and strays.  Analyses presented will include seasonal patterns of adult species diversity, species accumulation curves, and changes in the percentage of species recorded from n or fewer survey nights over time.  Geographic patterns of changes in the composition of the Macrolepidoptera fauna were investigated based on examining the percentage of recorded species in common with the AEI for various sites.  A model will be presented for estimating the number of adult Macrolepidoptera species present at a locality over a period of time.  Additional AEI data, such as quantitative light trap samples, and numbers of species found by different survey methods on individual nights, will be presented in an additional later volume on the AEI study. 


Contributions to a Study of the Diversity, Distribution, Habitat Association, and Phenology of the Lepidoptera of Wisconsin

Authors: Hugo L. Kons Jr., Robert J. Borth, and Thomas Barina

This report will be of a similar format to the present volume, and include over 13,350 unique Macrolepidoptera distribution records for 1,320 species.  Species lists will be presented for 113 WI localities, including 40 localities where 100 to 779 Macrolepidoptera species have been recorded. 


Contributions to a Study of the Diversity, Distribution, Phenology, and Habitat Association of Summer Flying Representatives of Lepidoptera in the Mid Latitudes of the Eastern United States

Authors: Hugo L. Kons Jr. & Robert J. Borth

This paper reports detailed Lepidoptera biodiversity inventory results, with at least 12,219 unique species records presented for 951 species.  This study included the following seventeen primary survey sites (the minimum number of species documented is given in parentheses): Rustic Acres Road in Luther, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma (339); Medicine Park in Comanche County, Oklahoma (217); Shores Lake (58) and White Rock Mountain (226) in Franklin County, Arkansas; Hwy 220 in Crawford County, Arkansas (88); Osage Prairie in Vernon County, Missouri (189); Taberville Prairie in St. Clair County, Missouri (214); the Dale River Hollow in Clay County, Tennessee (353); the Craig Creek Valley and the adjacent mountain on Hwy 630 (404), Route 633 (154), and Route 461 (156) in Montgomry County, Virginia; the Cranberry Glades area in Pochahontas County, West Virginia (184); Kingdom Come State Park (419) and Big Black Mountain (233) in Harlan and Letcher Counties, Kentucky; Tombigbee State Park in Lee County, Mississippi (187); a Black Belt prairie in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi (184), and Twin Swamps Nature Preserve in Posey County, Indiana (354).  This paper includes an analysis of habitat dependency and two tests of the AEI model for estimating the species richness present at a given locality over a series of dates.


Contributions to a study of the diversity, composition, distribution, habitat association, and phenology of the Lepidoptera of Texas and Oklahoma

Authors: Hugo L. Kons Jr. & Robert J. Borth

This paper reports detailed Lepidoptera biodiversity inventory data, including approximately 13,300 unique Lepidoptera records (including locality, GPS coordinates, date, elevation, habitat, and method of collection), and 4,654 unique locality records for 32 Texas and two Oklahoma localities.  The results are based on 53 days of field work in Texas and Oklahoma during May and June of 2002 through 2004.  The study sites include representatives of a variety of TX/OK biogeographic regions.  This work will include at least 1,114 species in the included families.


Contributions to a Lepidoptera survey of the northern Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River basin

Authors:  Hugo L. Kons Jr. & Robert J. Borth

This volume will present detailed survey results for a number of our study sites in the Apalachicola River drainage system.  Major study sites include the Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Aspalaga Road, Dolan Road, Buena Vista Landing and adjacent areas, a site near the intersection of Highways 10 and 269, and several sites in the Apalachicola National Forest. 


A collection of papers reporting the results of Lepidoptera biodiversity inventories at localities in northern Florida

Authors:  Hugo L. Kons Jr. & Robert J. Borth

This volume will be comprised of a collection of papers reporting the detailed biodiversity inventory results of many of the non-Gainesville localities for which species lists are presented in Volume I. 


A collection of papers reporting the results of Lepidoptera biodiversity inventories at localities in Wisconsin

Authors: Hugo L. Kons Jr., Robert J. Borth, and Thomas Barina

This volume will be comprised of a collection of papers reporting detailed biodiversity inventory results for various localities in Wisconsin.