North American Lepidoptera Biodiversity LLC
Check List of the
Lepidoptera Recorded from
Macrolepidoptera Families: Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae, Epiplemidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Nymphalidae, Mimallonidae, Lasiocampidae, Apatelodidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, and Noctuidae; also including: Yponomeutidae, Attevidae, Urodidae, Cossidae, Lacturidae, Zygaenidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Epipyropidae, and Thyrididae
By Hugo L. Kons Jr. & Robert J. Borth
Posted on the web
This on-line publication is an exemplar of one of the localities included in an upcoming volume of the North American Journal of Lepidoptera Biodiversity. This volume will present detailed biodiversity inventory data and analysis for 44 days of field work conducted in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Indiana between 1 June and 16 August 2002. The data from this project includes at least 12,219 unique Lepidoptera records for 951 species in the included families, and will be presented for each locality in a format comparable to that presented for Kingdom Come State Park below. Those who would be interested in receiving e-mail notification of when this volume is published should contact the senior author at email@example.com, to be placed on an e-mail notification list for NAJLB volumes. Placement on this list constitutes no obligation to purchase any NAJLB volumes and is for notification purposes only.
Abstract: We present detailed Lepidoptera biodiversity inventory results
for six survey dates at Kingdom Come State Park in Harlan and
Methods: Our surveys were conducted with MV sheets, UV traps, type P and F bait traps, a bait trail, and diurnal collecting with nets and jars. Follow this link for illustrations and a discussion of these survey methods. The following tables provide the dates and locations of our survey stations, and information on weather and moon conditions when surveys were conducted. At each survey station on each survey date we attempted to document all species encountered in the included families. Far more effort was devoted to surveying the nocturnal Lepidoptera fauna than the diurnal Lepidoptera fauna, and HLK stayed up all night on each of the survey nights. We did no diurnal surveys at all in the park during July as the weather was always cloudy and/or rainy when we were there during the day.
Voucher Specimens: At least one voucher specimen substantiates all unique species
records. A unique species record (USR)
is the collection of one or more specimens of a species from one survey station
on one survey date. Voucher specimens
are currently in the personal research collections of the authors or in the
Results: The following table, taken from a draft of our upcoming NAJLB
volume on our mid latitude eastern
Discussion: Other Lepidopterists had previously
visited Kingdom Come State Park prior to our surveys there, and Covell (1999) lists numerous Lepidoptera species as having
been found at Kingdom Come State Park. Covell (1999) reports localities where species have been
Since our survey
ten species from KCSP that Covell (1999) did not
include in his check list of Kentucky Lepidoptera. These species include: Eupithecia
the species we recorded from KCSP had only a single
We recorded many additional species that may be poorly known in Kentucky, based on these species being referred to “rare,” “uncommon,” “uncommon to rare,” or “local and uncommon” in Covell (1999). These species include: Itame subcessaria, Semiothisa minorata, Guernaria similaria, Probole nepiasaria, Caripeta aretaria, Xanthorhoe labradorensis, Eupithecia fletcherata, Eupithecia affinata, Ceratomia amyntor, Poanias astylus, Darapsa versicolor, Xylophanes tersa, Dasychira dorsipennata, Redectes vitrea, Hypena appalachiensis, Zale squamularis, Catocala sappho, Catocala ulalume, Catocala sordida, Catocala blandula, Nola cilicoides, Abrostola ovalis, Callopistria cordata, Pyrrhia exprimens, Panthea acronyctoides, Panthea furcilla, Acronicta innotata, Acronicta tritona, Acronicta superans, Acronicta clarescens, Acronicta hamamelis, Cucullia convexipennis, Archanara oblonga, Papaipema maritima, Bellura densa, Elaphria chalcedonia, Lacanobia subjuncta, Diarsia rubifera, Diarsia jucunda, Xestia smithii, Lycophota phyllophora, and Feltia tricosa.
the majority of species we recorded from
There are a
handfull of Macrolepidoptera
species potentially endemic to the
of the park appears to be characteristic of the Upper Austral Life Zone, with a
much more southern affiliated Lepidoptera fauna than that which occurs in the Transition
Life Zone at low elevations in
The following figure shows the number of Macrolepidoptera species we recorded from KCSP for each individual survey night and each individual survey station on each individual night:
totals for MV sheets include the highest values we have ever recorded from our
surveys in eastern
We suspect the most important factor in the especially high nightly MV sheet species counts was the topology of our sheet site. Time and time again we have observed that sheets or light traps located on overlooks or along trails or power line cuts outperform comparable survey stations located in the middle of the woods. Our KCSP sheet site at Halcomb overlook was unusual in having both of these factors: an overlook plus a power line cut going down the side of the mountain. Our first survey night at KCSP we had initially set up a second sheet along a trail without an overlook, but when we checked it about one hour after dark it had what we’d estimate to be less than one tenth the number of moths as at the Halcomb overlook site, granted this sheet also had a 250 watt MV light rather than a 400 watt light. We decided to take this sheet down because it was clear that attempting to document all of the species at the Halcomb overlook sheet would leave little time for having a second sheet site. Our trap site 4 that had an especially poor species count was also located on an overlook. However, this overlook was much steeper, with a long distance between the light and the vegetation below the overlook, and probably too great of a distance to attract moths with a 15 watt UV light.
encountered very few species or individual moths at our bait traps or bait
trails, consistent with our overall experience collecting in the
Analyzing biodiversity blitz survey data from many localities, we have found that a consistent repeating pattern for a given survey data set is that more species are recorded from one unique species record than any other number of unique species records, and that there is a general pattern of decreasing numbers of species recorded from larger numbers of unique species records. The pattern obtained from analyzing our six nights of Kingdom Come survey data is shown below. Over the six survey nights, 99 of the Macrolepidoptera species were recorded from only one survey station on only one survey date (one unique species record), and 65 of the Macrolepidoptera species were recorded from only two unique species records, etc. For light lures (MV sheet samples and UV trap samples) there are a maximum of 14 unique species records. There are eight possible unique species records from bait lures; however, since bait attracted so few moths during our KCSP surveys the influence of bait collecting was minimal.
When the data is analyzed to determine what percentage of the Macrolepidoptera species were recorded from n or fewer unique species records over the six survey dates, the following pattern is obtained:
Such patterns may not tell much when only a single survey data set is examined, but they can be more interesting when comparing survey data sets for different localities. The percentage of species recorded from n or fewer unique species records decreases as more survey data is added for a locality (and as a higher portion of the species which could potentially be found at a locality within a time interval is recorded). HLK has produced a model which can estimate what proportion of the potential species were actually recorded within a locality during a time interval, if one has data on what percentage of the species were recorded from n or fewer unique species records. This model has not yet been published, but will be published in an upcoming NAJLB volume.
thank Rick Fuller and the staff of Kingdom Come State Park for their
cooperation and encouragement of our research within the park. In addition, Rick Fuller showed us two
drawers of specimens previously taken at
David Wahl and the American Entomological Institute provided valuable infrastructural support, as well as a flexible work schedule for HLK. Hugo & Sharon Kons, Sr. assisted with building light and bait traps and provided other support. George Balogh determined our Eupithecia specimens other than E. miserulata. Several people assisted with acquiring chemicals important to our research, including Niklaus Hostettler, Jim Lloyd, and Robert Robbins.
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Kons, Hugo L. Jr. and Robert J. Borth. 2006. Contributions to a study of the diversity,
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